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Treatment Access: Related Resources
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HIV drug policies and South markets: Settling controversies
Daniele Dionisio, Claudio Fabbri, Daniela Messeri. Therapy. 2008. 5(5). 707-717. [PDF, 373]
Related Knowledge Base Chapters
Care of HIV Infection in the Developing World: Related Resources
Related Countries and Regions Pages
International ARV Treatment Guidelines
Journal Articles
Initiating patients on antiretroviral therapy at CD4 cell counts above 200 cells/µl is associated with improved treatment outcomes in South Africa
Fox MP, Sanne IM, Conradie F, Zeinecker J, Orrell C, Ive P, Rassool M, Dehlinger M, van der Host C, McIntyre J, Wood R. AIDS. 2010; 24:2041-50. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Task shifting for scale-up of HIV care: Evaluation of nurse-centered antiretroviral treatment at rural health centers in Rwanda
Shumbusho F, van Griensven J, Lowrance D. PLoS Med. 2009 Oct;6(10):e1000163. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Expanding antiretroviral options in resource-limited settings-a cost-effectiveness analysis
Bendavid E, Wood R, Katzenstein DA. Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Sep;52(1):106-13. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: lessons from Brazil
Nunn A, Da Fonseca E, and Gruskin S. Global Public Health. 2009;4(2):117. [PDF, 198K]
HIV drug policies and South markets: Settling controversies
Daniele Dionisio, Claudio Fabbri, Daniela Messeri. Therapy. 2008. 5(5). 707-717. [PDF, 373]
Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment
Nunn AS, Fonseca EM, Bastos FI, Gruskin S, Salomon JA. PLoS Medicine. 2007, Nov; 4(11) 1804-1817.
Forecast of demand for antiretroviral drugs in low and middle-income countries: 2007-2008
Galarraga O, O'Brien ME, Gutierrez JP, Renaud-Thery F, Nguimfack BD, Beusenberg M, et al. AIDS 2007 Jul;21 Suppl 4:S97-103. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
How far will we need to go to reach HIV-infected people in rural South Africa?
Wilson DP, Blower S. BMC Med 2007 Jun 19;5:16. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Training and HIV-Treatment Scale-Up: Establishing an Implementation Research Agenda
McCarthy E, O'Brien M, Rodriguez W. PLoS Med. 2006 Jul;3(7):989-993.
Monitoring The Scale-up of Antiretroviral Therapy Programmes: Methods to Estimate Coverage
Boerma JT, Stanecki KA, Newell ML, Luo C, Beusenberg M, Garnett GP, Little K, Calleja JG, Crowley S, Kim JY, Zaniewski E, Walker N, Stover J, Ghys PD. Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Feb;84(2):145-50. [PDF, 123K]
Designing Equitable Antiretroviral Allocation Strategies in Resource-Constrained Countries
Wilson DP, Blower SM. PLoS Med. 2005 Feb;2(2):e50.
Generic HIV Drugs--Enlightened Policy for Global Health
Wainberg MA. N Engl J Med. 2005 Feb 24;352(8):747-50.
Hard Choices: Rationing Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV/AIDS in Africa
Rosen S, Sanne I, Collier A, Simon JL. Lancet. 2005 Jan 22-28;365(9456):354-6. [PDF, 53K]
Expanding Access to Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Avoiding the Pitfalls and Dangers, Capitalizing on the Opportunities
McCoy D, Chopra M, Loewenson R, Aitken JM, Ngulube T, Muula A, Ray S, Kureyi T, Ijumba P, Rowson M. Am J Public Health. 2005 Jan;95(1):18-22.
Guidelines and Best Practices
Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, 2010. [PDF, 1.76MB]
Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV Infection in Infants and Children in Resource-Limited Settings: Towards Universal Access, Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 1.6MB]
Guidance on Ethics and Equitable Access to HIV Treatment and Care
WHO, November 30, 2004. [PDF, 482K]
Policy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
Financing the Response to AIDS in Low- and Middle-income Countries
Kates J, Lief E, Abila C. Kaiser Family Foundation, UNAIDS. July 2009. [PDF, 119K]
Missing The Target #5: Improving AIDS Drug Access and Advancing Health Care for All
International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC), December 2007 [PDF, 1MB]
Untangling The Web of Price Reductions: A Pricing Guide for the Purchase of ARVs in Developing Countries (11th Addition)
Médecins Sans Frontières, July 2008. [PDF,795K] Also available in French, Portuguese and Spanish. An update from January 2009 is available.
Missing The Target #4: Time is Running Out to End AIDS -- Treatment and Prevention for All!
International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, July 18, 2007 [PDF, 1MB]
Too Little for Too Few: Challenges for Effective and Accessible Antiretroviral Therapy
Médecins Sans Frontières, August 2006. [PDF, 1.3MB]
Progress on Global Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy: A Report on 3 by 5 and Beyond
WHO, UNAIDS, March 2006. [PDF, 2.7MB]
Action Today, A Foundation for Tomorrow: The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief--Second Annual Report to Congress
Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator, February 8, 2006. [PDF, 2MB] Second annual report to Congress.
HIV InSite Overview of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)
Includes core documents, program management tools, and related resources. Updated Frequently.
Equity and Fair Process in Scaling Up Antiretroviral Treatment: Potentials and Challenges in the United Republic of Tanzania: Case Study
World Health Organization, 2006. [PDF, 285K]
Achieving an HIV-Free Generation: Recommendations for a New American HIV Strategy
Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, December 2005. [PDF, 9.8MB]
The Practice of Charging User Fees at the Point of Service Delivery for HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care
WHO, November 2005. In English and French.
Global Fund Debt Conversion: A Joint Report from Advocacy International and the Global AIDS Alliance
Ann Pettifor, Conrad Barwa, Paul Zeitz. Advocacy International, Global AIDS Alliance, July 2005. [PDF, 1.5MB]
Sources and Prices of Selected Drugs and Diagnostics for People Living With HIV/AIDS
WHO, UNICEF Supply Division, UNAIDS, Médecins Sans Frontières, June 2005.
Selection of Antiretroviral Medications Provided Under U.S. Emergency Plan Is Limited
United States Government Accountability Office, January 2005. [PDF, 750K]
How Many People Should be on Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV/AIDS?
Roger England. Institute for Health Sector Development, October 2004. [PDF, 56K]
Access to HIV Treatment and Care
UNAIDS, July 6, 2004. [PDF, 118K] Also available in Spanish, French, and Russian.
Coverage of Selected Services for HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care and Support in Low and Middle Income Countries in 2003
USAID, UNAIDS, WHO, UNICEF, the POLICY Project, June 2004. [PDF, 601K]
Conference Reports and Proceedings
Monitoring Equity and Health Systems Issues in ART Programmes in Southern Africa: Report of a Regional Meeting
Southern African Regional Network on Equity in Health (EQUINET), Lilongwe, Malawi, October 7-8, 2004. [PDF, 376K]
Research Summaries
Principles, Issues and Options for Strengthening Health Systems for Treatment Access and Equitable Responses to HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa
Southern African Regional Network on Equity in Health (EQUINET), March 2004. [PDF, 300K]
Newsletter Articles
Getting Antiretrovirals to Where They Are Needed: Drug Procurement and Quality
Theo Smart. In: HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice, April 6, 2005
Program Management Materials
Procurement & Supply Management Toolbox
A central repository for a wide range of health-related procurement supply management tools. The Toolbox facilitates quick selection and access to tools in the public domain. WHO, 2008.
WHO List of Prequalified Medicinal Products
A database with information on formulation, origin, and maker for TB, malaria and HIV medications preapproved by the WHO. 2008.
Antiretroviral (ARV) Price List
The Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative (CHAI), April 2009. [PDF, 122 KB] Also available in Spanish, French, Portuguese, and Dominican.
Supply Chain Management Implications for HIV/AIDS Policymakers and Program Managers
DELIVER/John Snow International, 2004. [PDF, 836K]
Handbook on Access to HIV/AIDS-Related Treatment: A Collection of Information, Tools and Resources for NGOs, CBOs and PLWHA Groups
UNAIDS, May 20, 2003. [PDF, 2.1MB]
Treatment Access and Advocacy Organizations
Access in Developing World
Global Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS
(GNP+) Includes contact information for regional networks.
Health Action International
Global network of health, development, consumer, and other public interest groups in over 70 countries working for a more rational use of medicinal drugs.
Health Global Access Project
(HealthGAP) Website features published press articles, research, education, and online discussion on issues of global treatment access.
Journalists Against AIDS Nigeria
(JAAIDS) In 2002, launched an advocacy campaign to support access to affordable treatment and care for Nigerians living with HIV/AIDS. Web site includes links to reports, news, and electronic discussion forum.
Médecins Sans Frontières
(MSF) An international humanitarian aid organization that provides emergency medical assistance to populations in danger in more than 80 countries. Advocates for access to HIV medications.
Treatment Action Campaign
Based in South Africa; highlights disparities and problems in accessing HIV/AIDS treatment and campaigns for their elimination.
UNICEF Supply Division
Analyzes sources and prices of selected drugs and diagnostics for people living with HIV/AIDS.
Access in Europe and the United States
ACT UP/Philadelphia
AIDS Action
Promotes research and undertakes educational activities related to HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention.
AIDS Treatment Data Network
(ATDN) Community-based organization providing treatment education and counseling services. Site includes clinical trials information, facts sheets, and treatment access resources.
European AIDS Treatment Group
(EATG) Pan-European organization that seeks to ensure rapid access to state-of-the-art treatment and information, and to enable people with HIV and their advocates to provide maximum input into the drug testing and approval processes.
National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors (NASTAD)
NASTAD is a nonprofit national association of state health department HIV/AIDS program directors who have programmatic responsibility for administering HIV/AIDS health care, prevention, education, and supportive services programs funded by state and federal governments.
National Association of People with AIDS
(NAPWA) U.S. advocacy organization that focuses on community development and training as well as treatment and prevention education.
National Minority AIDS Council
(NMAC) Organizes regional training on treatment issues, conducts needs assessments on treatment issues in communities of color, and provides technical assistance to community-based organizations on treatment education for clients and service providers.
National AIDS Treatment Advocacy Project
(NATAP) Educates diverse communities on the newest HIV treatments and advocates on treatment and policy issues.
Project Inform
Disseminates treatment information and advocates for enlightened regulatory, research, and funding policies. Site features extensive treatment information.
Treatment Action Group
(TAG) Advocates for larger and more efficient AIDS research efforts, both public and private, as well as access to HIV/AIDS treatment and information.
Drug Pricing and Intellectual Property Rights
Consumer Project on Technology
Focuses on intellectual property rights and health care, electronic commerce, and competition policy. Focus is on antiretrovirals.
Management Sciences for Health
Publishes the International Drug Price Indicator Guide and manages the International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD).
World Health Organization, Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy
Seeks to provide global guidance on essential drugs and medicines, and works with countries, at their request, to implement national drug policies to ensure equity of access to essential drugs, drug quality and safety, and rational use of drugs.
World Trade Organization
Includes page on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
Access Mechanisms
Developing World (Donation Programs)
Distributes unused HIV medications to Latin America. Web site in English and Spanish. Also site for AID For AIDS Peru (in Spanish).
Sponsored by an NGO consortium, this site contains information about drug donation to developing countries, including donation guidelines, good donation practices, and raising awareness of need. Site in English, Dutch, French. German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish.
United States
Access Project
The Access Project collects and distributes information about medications available for HIV and AIDS through Medicaid, AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs), and national pharmaceutical industry patient assistance/expanded access programs. This site is an excellent source of information about treatments.
Expanded Access, Compassionate Use, and Treatment IND Programs
Programs that allow patients limited access to promising experimental treatments before they have been given full approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (Updated January 2008)
A comprehensive website providing information on pharmaceutical company-sponsored patient assistance programs by generic drug name, brand drug name, program list, and company list (including companies without patient assistant programs).