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Microbicides and Female-Controlled Prevention Technologies: Related Resources
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Vaginal microbicides and the prevention of HIV transmission
Cutler B, Justman J. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2008; 8:685-697
Journal Articles
Effectiveness and safety of vaginal microbicide 1% tenofovir gel for prevention of HIV infection in women
Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim SS, CAPRISA 004 Study Group. 18th International AIDS Conference, Vienna, Austria, July 20, 2010. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Efficacy of Carraguard for prevention of HIV infection in women in South Africa: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Skoler-Karpoff S, Ramjee G, Ahmed K, et al. Lancet 2008;372:1977-87. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Efficacy of Carraguard for prevention of HIV infection in women in South Africa: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Skoler-Karpoff S, Ramjee G, Ahmed K, et al. Lancet. 2008 Dec 6;372(9654):1977-87.
Lack of effectiveness of cellulose sulfate gel for the prevention of vaginal HIV transmission
Van Damme L, Govinden R, Mirembe, et al. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:463-72. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
SAVVY vaginal gel (C31G) for prevention of HIV infection: a randomized controlled trial in Nigeria
Feldblum PJ, Adeiga A, Bakare R, Wevill S, Lendvay A, Obadaki F, et al. PLoS ONE. 2008 Jan; 3(1):e1474. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Randomised controlled trial of alternative male and female condom promotion strategies targeting sex workers in Madagascar
Hoke TH, Feldblum PJ, Damme KV, Nasution MD, Grey TW, Wong EL et al. Sex Transm Infect. 2007 Oct;83(6):448-53. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
A Review of Female-Condom Effectiveness: Patterns of Use and Impact on Protected Sex Acts and STI Incidence
Vijayakumar G, Mabude Z, Smit J, Beksinska M, Lurie M. Int J STD AIDS. 2006 Oct;17(10):652-9. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Country-wide distribution of the nitrile female condom (FC2) in Brazil and South Africa: A cost-effectiveness analysis
Dowdy DW, Sweat MD, Holtgrave DR. AIDS. 2006 Oct 24;20(16):2091-8. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
A prospective study assessing the effects of introducing the female condom in a sex worker population in Mombasa, Kenya
Thomsen SC, Ombidi W, Toroitich-Ruto C, Wong EL, Tucker HO, Homan R, Kingola N, Luchters S. Sex Transm Infect. 2006 Oct;82(5):397-402. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Safety and tolerability of tenofovir vaginal gel in abstinent and sexually active HIV-infected and uninfected women
Mayer KH, Maslankowski LA, Gai F, El-Sadr WM, Justman J, Kwiecien A, Masse B, Eshleman SH, Hendrix C, Morrow K, Rooney JF, Soto-Torres L; the HPTN 050 Protocol Team. AIDS. 2006 Feb 28;20(4):543-551.
The development of vaginal microbicides for the prevention of HIV transmission
Weber J, Desai K, Darbyshire J. PLoS Med. 2005 May;2(5):e142.
Guidelines and Best Practices
The Female Condom: A Guide for Planning and Programming
UNAIDS and WHO Dept. of Reproductive Health and Research, December 2002. [PDF, 2.4MB]
The Safety and Feasibility of Female Condom Reuse: Report of a WHO Consultation
WHO, January 2002. [PDF, 193K] Document includes a draft protocol for preparing female condoms when they are reused.
Policy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
Less Silence, More Silence: Advocacy to Make Rectal Microbicides A Reality.
International Rectal Microbicide Advocates, February 2008. [PDF, 2.05 MB]
Rectal Microbicides: Investments and Advocacy.
International Rectal Microbicide Working Group, April 2006. [PDF, 772.59 KB]
Condoms, Contraceptives and Nonoxynol-9: Complex Issues Obscured by Ideology
Heather Boonstra. The Alan Guttmacher Institute, May 2005. [PDF, 322K]
Will a Pill a Day Prevent HIV? Anticipating the Results of the Tenofovir "PREP" Trials
AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition, March 2005. [PDF, 640K]
Preparing to Deliver: Introduction of Microbicides
Lilani Kumaranayake, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Charlotte Watts. Department of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, July 2004. [PDF, 120K]
Paving the Path: Preparing for Microbicide Introduction--A Report of a Study in South Africa
EngenderHealth, International Partnership for Microbicides, University of Cape Town, Population Council, 2004. [PDF, 459K]
The Female Condom: Women Control STI Protection
Heidi Brown. Population Reference Bureau, March 2003.
Microbicides: What They Are--Why We Need Them
Arin Farrington. Health and Sexuality, February 25, 2003.
The Female Condom: Dynamics of Use in Urban Zimbabwe
Deanna Kerrigan, Steve Mobley, Naomi Rutenberg, Andrew Fisher, Ellen Weiss. Horizons Project, Population Council, October 2000. [PDF, 1.6MB]
Provider Education and Training
The Female Condom Training Model
The Female Health Company, n.d. [PDF, 1.1MB]
Patient and Community Education
Microbicides Essentials Course
Global Campaign for Microbicides, 2008.
Microbicide Research and Development: What's in the Pipeline?
Global Campaign for Microbicides, May 2005. [PDF, 149K]
Frequently Asked Questions about Cervical Barriers
Cervical Barrier Advancement Society, June 2004. [PDF, 757K]
FAQs about Microbicides
Global Campaign for Microbicides and Prevention Options for Women, March 2004. [Word, 65K]
Clinical Trial Informed Consent Video
Population Council Microbicides Program, n.d. 20 minute video presentation.
Alan Guttmacher Institute
Nonprofit focused on sexual and reproductive health research, policy analysis, and public education. Publishes periodic reports on microbicides.
Alliance for Microbicide Development
Consortium of pharmaceutical companies, scientists, and advocacy groups dedicated to the development of topical microbicides for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
Global Campaign for Microbicides
International effort to build support among policymakers, opinion leaders, and the general public for increased private and public sector investment in microbicide products that women and men could use vaginally or rectally to protect themselves and their partners from HIV and other STIs.
International Rectal Microbicide Advocates
IRMA is a network numbering over 600 advocates, policymakers and leading scientists from over 45 countries on six continents working to advance a robust rectal microbicide research and development agenda.
Microbicides Development Programme
Aims to evaluate potential microbicides in vitro, carry out safety studies in the United Kingdom and Africa, conduct social science research into acceptability and barriers to uptake of products, and complete phase III effectiveness trials.
Population Council
International nonprofit institution that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research. Manages family planning and reproductive health projects including work on microbicides.
Reproductive Health Technologies Project
Provides educational materials and technical assistance to individuals and organizations advocating for microbicides.
Topical Microbicides
U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, outlining past research, ongoing and future research, and links to other resources.
Women's Global Health Imperative
A global research center based at Research Triangle Institute that provides scientific leadership to improve the ability of women and girls to protect themselves from HIV infection including microbicides.
Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE)
Focuses on gender, rights, and health vis-à-vis population policy, contraceptive delivery, STIs and HIV, and gender violence. Advocates for expanded access to female and male condoms. The site contains Analyses of the U.S. AIDS Strategy and Resources on Gender and HIV/AIDS
The Cervical Barrier Advancement Society
Aims to raise the profile of cervical barrier methods both for preventing pregnancy and potentially HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Web site contains information about cervical barriers, downloadable materials, images of cervical barriers, and research updates.
CONRAD Program
Exists to facilitate the rapid development of safe, acceptable, affordable products and methods that provide contraception and/or prevent the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS and other infections.
Female Health Company
Manufacturer of the female condom. Site includes instructions on use and information on the company's partnership with UNAIDS. Periodically issues an electronic newsletter.