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Genotypic Testing for HIV Drug Resistance: Related Resources
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Related Knowledge Base Chapters
decorative spacerAssays for Antiretroviral Resistance
Robert W. Shafer, June 2002.
Journal Articles
decorative spacerImpact of primary elvitegravir resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 integrase on drug susceptibility and viral replication fitness
Abram ME, Hluhanich RM, Goodman DD, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Jun;57(6):2654-63.
decorative spacerPerformance of a fourth-generation HIV screening assay and an alternative HIV diagnostic testing algorithm
Nasrullah M, Wesolowski LG, Meyer WA 3rd, et al. AIDS. 2013 Mar 13;27(5):731-7.
decorative spacerField evaluation of a broadly sensitive HIV-1 in-house genotyping assay for use with both plasma and dried blood spot specimens in a resource-limited country
Inzaule S, Yang C, Kasembeli A, et al. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Feb;51(2):529-39.
decorative spacerHIV-1 antiretroviral resistance: scientific principles and clinical applications
Tang MW, Shafer RW. Drugs. 2012 Jun 18;72(9):e1-25. Review.
decorative spacerEvaluation of in-house genotyping assay performance using dried blood spot specimens in the Global World Health Organization laboratory network
Parkin N, de Mendoza C, Schuurman R, et al; WHO DBS Genotyping Working Group. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 May;54 Suppl 4:S273-9.
decorative spacerThe HIVdb system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance interpretation
Tang MW, Liu TF, Shafer RW. Intervirology. 2012;55(2):98-101. Review.
decorative spacerDescription of two commercially available assays for genotyping of HIV-1
Stürmer M, Reinheimer C. Intervirology. 2012;55(2):134-7. Review.
decorative spacerHIV type-1 drug resistance in treatment-naive patients monitored using minority species assays: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Buckton AJ, Harris RJ, Pillay D, et al. Antivir Ther. 2011;16(1):9-16. Review.
decorative spacerLow-abundance HIV drug-resistant viral variants in treatment-experienced persons correlate with historical antiretroviral use
Le T, Chiarella J, Simen BB, et al. PLoS. 2009 Jun;4(6):e6079.
decorative spacerHIV-1 drug resistance mutations: an updated framework for the second decade of HAART
Shafer RW, Schapiro JM. AIDS Rev. 2008 Apr-Jun;10(2):67-84. Review.
decorative spacerConsensus drug resistance mutations for epidemiological surveillance: basic principles and potential controversies
Shafer RW, Rhee SY, Bennett DE. Antivir Ther. 2008;13 Suppl 2:59-68. Review.
decorative spacerAntiretroviral therapy: optimal sequencing of therapy to avoid resistance
Martinez-Cajas JL, Wainberg MA. Drugs. 2008;68(1):43-72. Review.
Guidelines and Best Practices
decorative spacerDrug-Resistance Testing
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents.

Excerpt from the current version of the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents.

decorative spacer Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing in Adults Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: 2008 Recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA PanelClin Infect Dis. 2008 Jul 15;47(2):266-85. See also 2014 Update of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1. Top Antivir Med. 2014 Jun-Jul;22(3):642-50. [PDF, 331K]
decorative spacerWorld Health Organization/HIVResNet Drug Resistance Laboratory Strategy
Bertagnolio S, Derdelinckx I, Parker M, et al. Antivir Ther. 2008;13 Suppl 2:49-57. April 2008.

A laboratory strategy developed by the WHO and the HIVResNet Laboratory Working Group aimed at assisting countries in the development of protocols, standards, and performance indicators for HIV resistance testing.

decorative spacerGuidance for Industry: Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro HIV Drug Resistance Genotype Assay
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Rockville, MD: DHHS; March 2011.
Conference Reports and Proceedings
decorative spacerProgram and Abstracts of the 2012 HIV Diagnostics Conference
Sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Minority AIDS Council (NMAC), and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL); December 11-12, 2012; Atlanta.
decorative spacerProgram and Abstracts of the 12th Annual Symposium of Antiviral Drug Resistance
University of Pittsburgh; HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute. November 6-9, 2011; Hersey, Pennsylvania. [PDF 3.17MB]
Online Books and Chapters
decorative spacerResistance Testing Chapter: Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care
AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center, 2014.
Clinician Support Tools
decorative spacerStanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database
A resource for researchers featuring a curated database of nearly all published HIV resistance sequences, including a wide variety of clinician tools and charts.
Slide Sets
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Resistance Testing in the Management of HIV-Infected Patients
Northwest AETC, August 2006. [PowerPoint, 4.2MB]
decorative spacerUpdate of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1: March 2013
International Antiviral Society-USA Resistance Testing Guidelines Panel, Drug Resistance Mutations Group.
Patient and Community Education
decorative spacerHIV Resistance Testing
Patient fact sheet about antiretroviral drug resistance.
decorative spacerA Guide to HIV Drug Resistance
An easy-to-read overview for patients from The Body. See also the The Body's HIV drug resistance topic page.
decorative spacerHIV Resistance Testing Panel Reports - NCCC Warmline and UCSF Positive Health Program
Case-based clinical interpretation of resistance assay reports. HIV Resistance Testing Consultation Panel, a service of the Warmline and the UCSF Positive Health Program at San Francisco General Hospital.
decorative spacerNational Cancer Institute HIV Drug Resistance Program
Organizes and conducts research and symposia on HIV drug resistance at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), one of the National Institutes of Health.
The program's website features the Recent HIV DRP Publications
page, a regularly updated bibliography of current journal articles and other publications regarding HIV drug resistance.
decorative spacerAffymetrix
decorative spacerApplied Biosystems
decorative spacerMonogram Biosciences (formerly ViroLogic)
decorative spacerbullet.gifPhenoSense
Information on PhenoSense HIV phenotypic drug resistance assay.
decorative spacerInnogenetics
decorative spacerLabCorp
decorative spacerTibotec
decorative spacerVirco