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Side Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs: Related Resources
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Study Suggests the Commonly Prescribed Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz Attacks Brain Cells
Johns Hopkins Medicine, News and Publications; September 27, 2012.
Related Knowledge Base Chapters
Antiretroviral Drugs Profiles
Susa Coffey, MD.
Metabolic Complications of HIV Therapy
Dominic C. Chow, Larry J. Day, Scott A. Souza, Cecilia M. Shikuma, May 2006.
Symptom Management Guidelines
Lisa Capaldini, July 2004.
Interactions of Antiretroviral Drugs: Related Resources
Adherence to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy
Edward L. Machtinger, MD, David R. Bangsberg, MD, May 2005.
Journal Articles
Adverse events associated with nevirapine and efavirenz-based first-line antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Shubber Z, Calmy A, Andrieux-Meyer I, Vitoria M, Renaud-Thery F, Shaffer N, Hargreaves S, Mills EJ, Ford N. AIDS. 2013 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print]
Systematic review of antiretroviral-associated lipodystrophy: lipoatrophy, but not central fat gain, is an antiretroviral adverse drug reaction
de Waal R, Cohen K, Maartens G. PLoS One. 2013 May 28;8(5):e63623.
Tolerability of HIV integrase inhibitors
Lee FJ, Carr A. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012 Sep;7(5):422-8. Review.
Renal toxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy
Calza L. HIV Clin Trials. 2012 Jul-Aug;13(4):189-211. Review.
Liver toxicity of antiretroviral drugs
Jones M, Núñez M. Semin Liver Dis. 2012 May;32(2):167-76. Review.
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor toxicity and mitochondrial DNA
Koczor CA, Lewis W. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2010 Dec;6(12):1493-504. Review.
A new era of antiretroviral drug toxicity
Calmy A, Hirschel B, Cooper DA, et al. Antivir Ther. 2009;14(2):165-79. Review.
Adverse effects of antiretrovirals in HIV-infected pregnant women
Zuk DM, Hughes CA, Foisy MM, et al. Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Jun;43(6):1028-35.
Neuropsychological functioning and antiretroviral treatment in HIV/AIDS: a review
Cysique LA, Brew BJ. Neuropsychol Rev. 2009 Jun;19(2):169-85.
The consequences of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy use for cardiovascular disease risk: shifting paradigms
Baker JV, Henry WK, Neaton JD. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009 May;4(3):176-82.
Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral medication
Roca B. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009 Jan 1;14:1785-92. Review.
Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected children
Shah I. J Trop Pediatr. 2006 Aug;52(4):244-8.
Guidelines and Best Practices
Limitations to Treatment Safety and Efficacy: Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents.

Excerpt from the current version of the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents.

Management of Medication Toxicity or Intolerance
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children.

Excerpt from the current version of the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection.

Appendix A: Supplement: Safety and Toxicity of Individual Antiretroviral Agents in Pregnancy
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission.

Excerpt from the current version of the Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV Transmission in the United States .

Monitoring and Substitutions for ARV Drug Toxicities
World Health Organization. Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection. Chapter 7: Clinical Guidance across the Continuum of Care--Antiretroviral Therapy. June 2013.
Long-Term Complications Of Antiretroviral Therapy
New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute; May 2007.
Management of Metabolic Complications Associated with Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-1 Infection
Recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA Panel, JAIDS, November 1, 2002.
Conference Reports and Proceedings
Complications of HIV Disease, Viral Hepatitis, and Antiretroviral Therapy
Anne F. Luetkemeyer, Diane V. Havlir, Judith S. Currier. Topics in Antiviral Medicine; International Antiviral Society-USA; April/May 2013. Highlights of the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; Atlanta; March 3-6, 2013. [PDF, 424K]
International Workshops on Adverse Drug Reactions and Comorbidities in HIV
Online Books and Chapters
Adverse Reactions to HIV Medications Chapter: Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care
AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center, 2014.
Newsletter Articles
Diagnosis and Management of Body Morphology Changes and Lipid Abnormalities Associated with HIV Infection and Its Therapies
David A. Wohl. Topics in HIV Medicine; International Antiviral Society-USA; July/August 2004. [PDF, 132K]
Provider Education and Training
Adverse Effects and Comorbidities
Clinical Care Options. A series of modules covering various topics relating to the prevention and management of side effects associated with the use of ARV medications. Updated regularly.
Antiretroviral Rx: Adverse Effects
HIV Web Study. 7 case-based learning modules for clinicians, from the Northwest AIDS Education and Training Center and the University of Washington. Updated regularly.
Clinician Support Tools
Table 13. ART-Associated Common and/or Severe Side Effects
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents; February 12, 2013. [JPG, 1.9MB]
Patient and Community Education
A Practical Guide to HIV Drug Side Effects
Canadian AIDS Treatment Information Exchange (CATIE); 2012. A comprehensive online book for patients covering a wide variety of common ARV side effects. Also available in PDF format.
Side Effects
NAM-AIDSMAP; 2013. A patient-education booklet discussing possible adverse effects of ARV medications and how to manage them. Also available as an online flipbook.
Side Effects
A series of fact sheets for patients on side effects and how to deal with them, from
Managing Side Effects of HIV Medications
New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute; November 2006. An online educational booklet for patients.
Side Effects of Anti-HIV Medications
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; October 2005. A series of fact sheets for patients on major side effects, including hepatotoxicity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, lactic acidosis, and skin rash.
AIDSinfo Drug Database
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) project providing information on antiretroviral treatment and drugs that treat or prevent AIDS-related illness.
Succinct, easy-to-read information on HIV drugs and related issues.
Anti-HIV/OI/TB Therapeutics Database
Computerized databases containing chemical structures and biological data established at the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of NIAID to foster developments in the chemotherapy of HIV, opportunistic infections, and tuberculosis and to serve as an information source.
Database of Antiretroviral Drug Interactions
Search by antiretroviral drug, interacting drug, or interacting drug class. Maintained by HIV InSite.
Site features information on interactions with each class of antiretroviral drugs. Maintained by the Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Group, University of Liverpool.
HIV Medication Guide
Features information on single- and multiple-HIV drug interactions, a customizable medication chart function, patient drug pamphlets, and more. Available in English and French from JAG enterprises, a clinical pharmacy consultation firm.
Johns Hopkins HIV Guide
An on-line decision support tool designed to assist clinicians in the diagnosis, management and treatment of HIV/AIDS. Requires registration.
An easy-to-read site with a comprehensive overview of the discovery and development of AIDS therapeutics, from the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
Toronto General Hospital Immunodeficiency Clinic
HIV treatment resources, including drug interactions tables, fact sheets, and other information for health care professionals.
Clinical Pharmacology
Up-to-date, peer reviewed, clinically-relevant information on all U.S. drugs, as well as off-label uses and dosages, herbal supplements, nutritional products, and new and investigational drugs. Requires paid subscription.
Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table
Designed as a hypothesis testing, teaching, and reference tool for physicians and researchers interested in drug interactions that are the result of competition for, or effects on the human cytochrome P450 system. Includes links to canned PubMed searches.
FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
(CDER) Reports and information on prescription and over-the-counter drugs, as well as regulatory issues and the drug approval process, public health alerts, and more.
Physicians' Desk Reference online, featuring drug and healthcare information, with separate interfaces for physicians, pharmacists, physician assistants, nurses, and consumers. Registration is required, and is either free or fee-based, depending on the level of access desired.
Index of information on pharmaceutical products from WebMD. Features search function for looking up drugs by the pill imprint code, color, or shape.
Adverse Event Reporting and Emergencies
American Association of Poison Control Centers
List of poison control centers.
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
Intended to provide an early signal of any major teratogenic effect associated with a prenatal exposure to the products monitored through the registry, a voluntary prospective, exposure-registration, observational study designed to collect and evaluate data on the outcomes of pregnancy exposures to antiretroviral products.
FDA safety information and adverse event reporting program for drugs and other medical products.
U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention
A scientific nonprofit organization that sets standards for the identity, strength, quality, and purity of medicines, food ingredients, and dietary supplements manufactured, distributed and consumed worldwide.
Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System
(VAERS) Vaccine surveillance program of the FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research.