University of California, San Francisco Logo

University of California, San Francisco | About UCSF | Search UCSF | UCSF Medical Center

Home > Knowledge Base > ARV Treatment Monitoring: Related Resources
Antiretroviral Treatment Monitoring in Developing Countries: Related Resources
transparent gif
arrow imageRelated Knowledge Base Chapters
arrow imageJournal Articles
arrow imageGuidelines and Best Practices
arrow imagePolicy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
arrow imagePresentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
arrow imageResearch Summaries
arrow imageProvider Education and Training
arrow imageProgram Management Materials
arrow imageLinks
grey line
Related Knowledge Base Chapters
Care of HIV Infection in the Developing World: Related Resources
International Treatment Guidelines
Journal Articles
Population-based monitoring of HIV drug resistance in Namibia with early warning indicators
Hong SY, Jonas A, Dumeni E, Badi A, Pereko D, Blom A, Muthiani VS, Shiningavamwe AN, Mukamba J, Andemichael G, Barbara R, Bennett DE, Jordan MR. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Dec 1;55(4):27-31. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Population-level reduction in adult mortality after extension of free antiretroviral therapy provision into rural areas in northern Malawi
Floyd S, Molesworth A, Dube A, Banda E, Jahn A, Mwafulirwa C, Ngwira B, Branson K, Crampin AC, Zaba B, Glynn JR, French N. PLoS One. 2010; 5:Number, e13499. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Viral load predicts new world health organization stage 3 and 4 events in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, independent of CD4 T lymphocyte value
Oliveira R, Krauss M, Essama-Bibi S, Hofer C, Robert Harris D, Tiraboschi A, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2010; 51(11):1325-33. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized trial
Lester RT, Ritvo P, Mills EJ, et al. Lancet. 2010;376:1838-1845. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Cost-effectiveness of laboratory monitoring in sub Saharan Africa: a review of the current literature
Walensky RP, Ciaranello AL, Park JE, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jul 1;51(1):85-92. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Population-based monitoring of HIV drug resistance in Namibia with early warning indicators
Hong SY, Jonas A, Dumeni E, Badi A, Pereko D, Blom A, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Dec 1;55(4):27-31. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis microbiologic and clinical treatment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of immediate versus CD4+-initiated antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults with a high CD4+ cell count
Chamie G, Charlebois ED, Srikantish P, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2010; 51: 359-62. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
CD4+ cell count testing more effective than HIV disease clinical staging in identifying pregnant and postpartum women eligible for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
Carter RJ, Dugan K, El-Sadr WM, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jun 30. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Evaluation of the PIMA point-of-care CD4 analyzer in VCT clinics in Zimbabwe
Mtapuri-Zinyowera S, Chideme M, Mangwanya D, Mugurungi O, Gudukeya S, Hatzold K, et al. JAIDS. 2010;55:1-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Cost-effectiveness of routine and low-cost CD4 T-cell count compared with WHO clinical staging of HIV to guide initiation of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
Athan E, O'Brien DP, Legood R. AIDS. 2010;24:1887-1895. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Significantly diminished long-term specificity of the BED capture enzyme immunoassay among patients with HIV-1 with very low CD4 counts and those on antiretroviral therapy
Marinda ET, Hargrove J, Preiser W, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Apr 1;53(4):496-9. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Routine versus clinically driven laboratory monitoring of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa (DART): A randomised non-inferiority trial
DART Trial Team. Lancet. 2010 Jan 9;375(9709):123-31. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Misclassification of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure based on immunological monitoring of HIV infection in resource-limited settings
Kantor R, Diero L, Delong A, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Aug 1;49(3):454-62. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Prognosis of patients treated with cART from 36 months after initiation, according to current and previous CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements
The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC). AIDS. 2009 Oct 23;23(16):2199-208. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: comparison of programmes with and without viral load monitoring
The ART-LINC of IeDEA Study Group. AIDS. 2009 Sept10;23(14):1867-1874. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Assessment of the low-cost Cavidi ExaVir Load assay for monitoring HIV viral load in pediatric and adult patients
Greengrass V, Lohman B, Morris L, et al. Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Nov 1;52(3):387-90. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Failure of immunologic criteria to appropriately identify antiretroviral treatment failure in Uganda
Reynolds S, Nakigozi G, Newell K, et al. AIDS 2009. Mar 27;23(6):697-700. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Impact of a modified directly administered antiretroviral treatment intervention on virological outcome in HIV-infected patients treated in Burkina Faso and Mali
Pirkle C, Boileau C, Nguyen V, et al. HIV Medicine. 2009;10(3):152-6. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
HIV-1 viral load monitoring: an opportunity to reinforce treatment adherence in a resource-limited setting in Thailand
Wilson D, Keiluhu AK, Kogrum S, et al. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103(6):601-6. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Evaluation of the WHO criteria for antiretroviral treatment failure among adults in South Africa
Mee P, Fielding KL, Charalambous S, Churchyard GJ, Grant AD. AIDS. 2008;22:1971-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Failure of immunologic criteria to appropriately identify antiretroviral treatment failure in Uganda
Reynolds SJ, Nakigozi G, Newell K et al. AIDS 2009, 23:697–700.
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy assessed by drug level monitoring and self-report in Cameroon
Kouanfack C, Laurent C, Peytavin G, Ciaffi L, Ngolle M, Mawamba Y, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:216-19. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Point-of-care lactate testing predicts mortality of severe sepsis in a predominantly HIV type 1-infected patient population in Uganda
Moore CC, Jacob ST, Pinkerton R, Meya DB, Mayanja-Kizza, Reynolds SJ, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 15;46(2):215-22. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Positive outcomes of HAART at 24 months in HIV-infected patients in Cambodia
Ferradini L, Laureillard D, Prak N, Ngeth C, Fernandez M, Pinoges L et al. AIDS 2007 Nov 12;21(17):2293-301. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Predictors of long-term viral failure among Ugandan children and adults treated with antiretroviral therapy
Kamya MR, Mayanja-Kizza H, Kambugu A, Bakeera-Kitaka S, Semitala F, Mwebaze-Songa P, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Oct 1;46(2):187-93. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review
Rosen S, Fox MP, Gill CJ. PLoS Med. 2007 Oct 16;4(10):e298
HIV-1 viral load assays for resource-limited settings
Fiscus SA, Cheng B, Crowe SM, Demeter L, Jennings C, Miller V, Respess R, Stevens W; Forum for Collaborative HIV Research Alternative Viral Load Assay Working Group. PLoS Med. 2006 Oct;3(10):e417. See also the related article, HIV-1 Viral Load Assays for Resource-Limited Settings: Clades Matter. Preiser W, Drexler JF, Drosten C. PLoS Med. 2006 Dec;3(12):e538; author reply e550.
Point of care testing for antiretroviral therapy-related lactic acidosis in resource-poor settings
Ivers LC, Mukherjee JS. AIDS. 2006 Mar 21;20(5):779-80.
Ultrasensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen assay modified for use on dried whole-blood spots as a reliable, affordable test for infant diagnosis.
Patton JC, Sherman GG, Coovadia AH, Stevens WS, Meyers TM. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006 Jan;13(1):152-5.
Use of total lymphocyte count for informing when to start antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children: a meta-analysis of longitudinal data
HIV Paediatric Prognostic Markers Collaborative Study. Lancet. 2005 Nov 26;366(9500):1868-74.
CD4 Measurements in Patients with HIV: Are They Feasible for Poor Settings?
Bentwich Z. PLoS Med. 2005 Jul;2(7):e214.
A Microchip CD4 Counting Method for HIV Monitoring in Resource-Poor Settings
Rodriguez WR, Christodoulides N, Floriano PN, Graham S, Mohanty S, Dixon M, Hsiang M, Peter T, Zavahir S, Thior I, Romanovicz D, Bernard B, Goodey AP, Walker BD, McDevitt JT. PLoS Med. 2005 Jul;2(7):e182.
Absolute CD4 T-cell counting in resource-poor settings: direct volumetric measurements versus bead-based clinical flow cytometry instruments
Dieye TN, Vereecken C, Diallo AA, Ondoa P, Diaw PA, Camara M, Karam F, Mboup S, Kestens L. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 May 1;39(1):32-7.
Monitoring the response to antiretroviral therapy in resource-poor settings: the Malawi model
Harries AD, Gomani P, Teck R, de Teck OA, Bakali E, Zachariah R, Libamba E, Mwansambo A, Salaniponi F, Mpazanje R. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004 Dec;98(12):695-701.
Changes in Total Lymphocyte Count as a Surrogate for Changes in CD4 Count Following Initiation of HAART: Implications for Monitoring in Resource-Limited Settings
Mahajan AP, Hogan JW, Snyder B, Kumarasamy N, Mehta K, Solomon S, Carpenter CC, Mayer KH, Flanigan TP. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Apr 20;36(1):567-575.
Usefulness of total lymphocyte count in monitoring highly active antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
Badri M, Wood R. AIDS. 2003 Mar 7;17(4):541-5.
Total lymphocyte count (TLC) is a useful tool for the timing of opportunistic infection prophylaxis in India and other resource-constrained countries
Kumarasamy N, Mahajan AP, Flanigan TP, Hemalatha R, Mayer KH, Carpenter CC, Thyagarajan SP, Solomon S. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Dec 1;31(4):378-83.
Guidelines and Best Practices
Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating Pregnant Women and Preventing HIV Infection in Infants in Resource-Limited Settings: Towards Universal Access, Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 2.4MB]
bullet.gifRapid Advice: ARV Treatment for Pregnant Women and Prevention of Infection in Infants
WHO, November 30, 2009. [PDF, 373K]
bullet.gifRapid Advice: HIV and Infant Feeding--Revised Principles and Recommendations
World Health Organization, November 30, 2009. [PDF, 219K]
Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, 2010. [PDF, 1.76MB]
Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV Infection in Infants and Children in Resource-Limited Settings: Towards Universal Access, Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 1.6MB]
Guidelines on Co-trimoxazole Prophylaxis for HIV-Related Infections Among Children, Adolescents and Adults in Resource-Limited Settings: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 1.1MB]
WHO Case Definitions of HIV for Surveillance and Revised Clinical Staging and Immunological Classification of HIV-Related Disease in Adults and Children
World Health Organization. August 7, 2006. [PDF 1.1 MB]
Guidelines for HIV Diagnosis and Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy
World Health Organization, December 2009. [PDF, 1.57MB]
Policy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
Transfer of HIV Diagnostic and Monitoring Technologies Into Resource-Poor Settings
Mark Mascolini. Forum for Collaborative HIV Research, April 22, 2002. [PDF, 1MB]
Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
ARV Drugs, Adverse Events, Case Definition, Grading, Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring
Meeting of the World Health Organization and the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research, Geneva, February 28-29, 2008. [PDF, 52K]
Strengthening the Laboratory Systems for HIV/AIDS in the African Region
Regional Network for HIV/AIDS Public Health Laboratories, WHO Regional Office for Africa, February 2001. [PDF, 28K]
Review of CD4 Technologies
Suzanne Crowe. Forum for Collaborative HIV Research, n.d. [PDF, 1.8 MB]
Research Summaries
Use of Total Lymphocyte Count vs CD4 Cell Count as a Marker of Immunity in HIV-Infected Adults and Children
Arthur Ammann, Sahai Burrowes. UCSF Center for HIV Information. June 2006.
Provider Education and Training
India QA/QC Training Workshop
CDC, Division of Laboratory Systems/PHPPO, January 19-23, 2004.
Building Laboratory Capacity in Support of HIV/AIDS Care Programs in Resource-limited Countries
CDC, Division of Laboratory Systems/PHPPO, December 16th-17th, 2003.
Ethiopia Integrated Laboratory Training Workshop
CDC, Division of Laboratory Systems/PHPPO, December 7-13, 2003.
Program Management Materials
Handbook of Supply Management at First-Level Health Care Facilities - Working Document for Field Testing and Review
World Health Organization. 2006. [PDF 1.3 MB]
Sources and Prices of Selected Medicines and Diagnostics for People Living with HIV/AIDS
World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, UNAIDS, Médecins Sans Frontières. June 2005.
CD4 Laboratory Assessment Tool
CDC, n.d. [PDF, 78K]
Links
Afford CD4
Afford CD4 aims to promote the use of cost effective and accurate CD4 T-cell testing through simplification of current flow cytometric protocols used for CD4 counting, and supports initiatives to cut the cost of antiretroviral therapy in resource-poor settings.
FIND Diagnostics
FIND works to accelerate the development, evaluation, and appropriate use of high-quality, affordable diagnostic tools for infectious diseases in developing countries.
Transfer of HIV Diagnostic & Monitoring Technologies to Resource-Poor Settings
A project of the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research.
WHO: Diagnostics and Laboratory Technology
Aims to increase access to quality diagnostics and to strengthen laboratory services through evaluation and procurement of available technologies and provision of training and technical support.