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Care of HIV Infection in the Developing World: Related Resources
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arrow imageRelated Knowledge Base Chapters
arrow imageJournal Articles
arrow imageGuidelines and Best Practices
arrow imagePolicy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
arrow imageConference Reports and Proceedings
arrow imagePresentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
arrow imageResearch Summaries
arrow imageProvider Education and Training
arrow imageClinician Support Tools
arrow imageProgram Management Materials
arrow imagePatient and Community Education
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Related Knowledge Base Chapters
decorative spacerPalliative Care of Patients with HIV
Eva Chittenden and Alison Ludwig, July 2008.
decorative spacerInfections Associated with HIV
Twenty-five Knowledge Base chapters on HIV-related bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections, including:
decorative spacerbullet.gifPenicilliosis and HIV Woraphot Tantisiriwat, Judith A. Aberg, March 2006.
decorative spacerbullet.gifMalaria and HIV James Whitworth, May 2006.
decorative spacerbullet.gifTuberculosis and HIV Lisa Goozé, Charles L. Daley, May 2003.
decorative spacerClinical Implications of Immune Reconstitution in AIDS
Mark A. Jacobson, January 2006.
decorative spacer Antiretroviral Treatment Monitoring in Developing Countries: Related Resources
decorative spacerNutritional Issues in HIV: Related Resources
decorative spacerTreatment Access: Related Resources
decorative spacerCommunity-Based Care in the Developing World: Related Resources
Journal Articles
decorative spacerDaily Cotrimoxazole in severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected adults in Africa started on combination antiretroviral therapy: An observational analysis of the DART cohort
Walker AS, Ford D, Gilks CF, et al. Lancet. 2010;375:1278-86. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerHigh rates of survival, immune reconstitution and virologic suppression on second-line antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
Fox MP, Ive P, Long L. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Oct 15. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerPrognosis of patients treated with cART from 36 months after initiation, according to current and previous CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements
The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC). AIDS. 2009 Oct 23;23(16):2199-208. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerSwitching to second-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: comparison of programmes with and without viral load monitoring
The ART-LINC of IeDEA Study Group. AIDS. 2009 Sept10;23(14):1867-1874. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerCause-specific mortality and the contribution of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the first 3 years after antiretroviral therapy initiation in an urban African cohort
Castelnuovo B, Manabe Y, Kiragga A, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 15;49(6):965-72. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerTuberculosis treatment and risk of stavudine substitution in first-line antiretroviral therapy
Westreich DJ, Sanne I, Maskew M, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 1;48(11):1617-23.
decorative spacerFive-year outcomes of initial patients treated in Botswana's National Antiretroviral Treatment Program
Bussmann H, Wester CW, Ndwapi N, et al. AIDS. 2008;22:2303-11. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerExcessive early mortality in the first year of treatment in HIV type 1-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
Marazzi MC, Liotta G, Germano P, Guidotti G, Altan AD, Ceffa S, et al. AIDS Res Hum Retrovirus. 2008 March 26; Epub. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerEffectiveness of antiretroviral treatment in a South African program: a cohort study
Fairall LR, Bachmann MO, Louwagie GM, van Vuuren C, Chikobvu P, Steyn D, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jan 14;168(1):86-93. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerIncidence and determinants of mortality and morbidity following early antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-infected adults in West Africa
Moh R, Danel C, Messou E, Ouassa T, Gabillard D, Anzian A, et al. AIDS. 2007 Nov 30;21(18):2483-91. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerPositive outcomes of HAART at 24 months in HIV-infected patients in Cambodia
Ferradini L, Laureillard D, Prak N, Ngeth C, Fernandez M, Pinoges L et al. AIDS. 2007 Nov 12;21(17):2293-301. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerImplementing antiretroviral therapy in rural communities: the Lusikisiki model of decentralized HIV/AIDS care
Bedelu M, et al. J Infect Dis. 2007 Dec; 196(Suppl 3):S464-S468. No abstract available. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerThe cost effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment strategies in resource-limited settings
Bishai D, Colchero A, Durack DT. AIDS. 2007 Jun;21(10):1333-40. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerRisk factors for treatment denial and loss to follow-up in an antiretroviral treatment cohort in Kenya
Karcher H, Omondi A, Odera J, Kunz A, Harms G. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 May;12(5):687-94. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerDiscontinuation and modification of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Ugandans: prevalence and associated factors
Kiguba R, Byakika-Tusiime J, Karamagi C, Ssali F, Mugyenyi P, Katabira E. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Jun 1;45(2):218-23. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerShort-Term Risk of AIDS or Death in People Infected with HIV-1 Before Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: A Longitudinal Study
Badri M, Lawn SD, Wood R. Lancet. 2006 Oct 7;368(9543):1254-9. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerGeneric fixed-dose combination antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: multicentric observational cohort
Calmy A, Pinoges L, Szumilin E, Zachariah R, Ford N, Ferradini L. AIDS. 2006 May 12;20(8):1163-9.
decorative spacerModelling the Impact of Antiretroviral Use in Resource-Poor Settings
Baggaley RF, Garnett GP, Ferguson NM. PLoS Med. 2006 Apr;3(4):e124.
decorative spacerMortality of HIV-1-infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: comparison between low-income and high-income countries
Egger M. Lancet. 2006 Mar 11;367(9513):817-824. (Full text available with free registration.)
decorative spacerA community-based study of the incidence of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-preventable infections in Malawian adults living with HIV.
van Oosterhout JJ, Laufer MK, Graham SM, Thumba F, Perez MA, Chimbiya N, Wilson L, Chagomerana M, Molyneux ME, Zijlstra EE, Taylor TE, Plowe CV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Aug 15;39(5):626-31.
Guidelines and Best Practices
decorative spacerInternational ARV Treatment Guidelines
HIV InSite's collection of international HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines.
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Drugs for Treating Pregnant Women and Preventing HIV Infection in Infants in Resource-Limited Settings: Towards Universal Access, Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 2.4MB]
decorative spacerbullet.gifRapid Advice: ARV Treatment for Pregnant Women and Prevention of Infection in Infants
WHO; November 30, 2009. [PDF, 373K]
decorative spacerbullet.gifRapid Advice: HIV and Infant Feeding--Revised Principles and Recommendations
World Health Organization; November 30, 2009. [PDF, 219K]
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, 2010. [PDF, 1.76MB]
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Therapy of HIV Infection in Infants and Children in Resource-Limited Settings: Towards Universal Access, Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 1.6MB]
decorative spacerGuidelines on Co-trimoxazole Prophylaxis for HIV-Related Infections Among Children, Adolescents and Adults in Resource-Limited Settings: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 1.1MB]
decorative spacerWHO Case Definitions of HIV for Surveillance and Revised Clinical Staging and Immunological Classification of HIV-Related Disease in Adults and Children
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 1.1MB]
decorative spacerPatient Monitoring Guidelines for HIV Care and ART
World Health Organization, June 19, 2006. [PDF, 3MB]
decorative spacerSexual and Reproductive Health of Women Living with HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Care, Treatment and Support for Women Living with HIV/AIDS and Their Children in Resource-Constrained Settings
World Health Organization, June 19, 2006. [PDF, 1.6MB]
decorative spacerClinical HIV/AIDS Care Guidelines for Resource-Poor Settings
Médecins Sans Frontières, April 2006. [PDF, 3.7MB]
decorative spacerIntegrated Management of Adolescent & Adult Illness: Interim Guidelines for First Level Facility Health Workers--Acute Care
WHO, October 2005. [PDF, 2MB] Also in French. Other modules include:
decorative spacerbullet.gifChronic HIV Care with ARV Therapy
[PDF, 863K] Also in French. See also the Participant Manual for the WHO Basic ART Clinical Training Course based on this module.
decorative spacerbullet.gifGeneral Principles of Good Chronic Care
[PDF, 149K] Also in French.
decorative spacerbullet.gifPalliative Care: Symptom Management and End-of-Life Care
[PDF, 915K] Also in French.
decorative spacerbullet.gifCaregiver Booklet: A Guide For Patients, Family Members and Community Caregivers
[PDF, 368K]
decorative spacerStandards for Quality HIV Care: A Tool for Quality Assessment, Improvement, and Accreditation
World Health Organization, November 2004. [PDF, 339K] Also available in French. [PDF, 213K]
decorative spacerHIV/AIDS: A Guide for Nutrition, Care and Support
Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, September 2004. [PDF, 780K] See also update, Recommendation for the Nutrient Requirements for People Living with HIV/AIDS, February 2007. [PDF, 44K]
decorative spacerNutrition Counselling, Care and Support for HIV-Infected Women: Guidelines on HIV-Related Care, Treatment and Support for HIV-Infected Women and their Children in Resource-Constrained Settings
World Health Organization, 2004. [PDF, 3MB]
decorative spacerGuidance on Ethics and Equitable Access to HIV Treatment and Care
World Health Organization, 2004. [PDF, 482K]
Policy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
decorative spacerNutrition Care and Support of People Living with HIV in Countries in Francophone Africa: Progress, Experience, and Lessons Learned
Djibril Cissé and Serigne M. Diène. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II Project, March 2009. [PDF, 204K]
decorative spacerPrioritizing Second-Line Antiretroviral Drugs for Adults and Adolescents: a Public Health Approach
Report of a WHO Working Group Meeting. WHO. December, 2007. [PDF, 600 KB]
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Medication Policy for Refugees
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), January 2007. [PDF, 196K]
decorative spacerDelivering Antiretroviral Drugs in Emergencies: Neglected but Feasible -- Consensus Statement
World Health Organization. November 2006. [PDF, 444K]
decorative spacerHIV InSite Overview of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)
Includes core documents, program management tools, and related resources. February 2006.
decorative spacerMalaria and HIV Interactions and their Implications for Public Health Policy
World Health Organization, August 2005. [PDF, 313K] Also available in French.
decorative spacerCombating AIDS in the Developing World
UN Millennium Project, 2005.
decorative spacerHow Many People Should be on Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV/AIDS?
Roger England. Institute for Health Sector Development, October 2004. [PDF, 56K]
decorative spacerScaling Up Treatment for the Global AIDS Pandemic: Challenges and Opportunities
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, July 7, 2004.
decorative spacerExpanding the Care Continuum For HIV/AIDS: Bringing Carers into Focus
Jessica Ogden, Simel Esim, Caren Grown. International Center for Research on Women, June 2004. [PDF, 712K]
decorative spacerAn Approach to Rapid Scale-Up Using HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care as an Example
WHO, 2004. [PDF, 360K]
decorative spacerProvision of Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Limited Settings: A Review of Experience Up To August 2003
Kathy Attawell, Jackie Mundy. Health Systems Resource Centre, UK Department for International Development, World Health Organisation, November 2003. [PDF, 310K]
decorative spacerFood and Nutrition Implications of Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource Limited Settings
Tony Castleman, Eleonore Seumo-Fosso, Bruce Cogill. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, August 2003. [PDF, 182K]
decorative spacerDonation Programmes for HIV/AIDS-Related Drugs: Documenting the Early Experience of the Diflucan Partnership Programme and Viramune Donation Programme
Sibongile Pefile. The Initiative on Public-Private Partnerships for Health, August 2003. [PDF, 259K]
Conference Reports and Proceedings
decorative spacerCoverage of the 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI)
UCSF Center for HIV Information., March 2007. See also coverage of the 13th and 12th CROI.
Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
decorative spacerRolling Out ART: Experiences from Kenya
Presentations from a meeting convened by Horizons Program of Population Council and the International Centre for Reproductive Health, Nairobi, Kenya, October 13, 2005.
decorative spacerWHO/UNAIDS Workshop on Strategic Information for Anti-Retroviral Therapy Programmes
Geneva, Switzerland, June 30-July 2, 2003.
Research Summaries
decorative spacerMalaria and HIV: The Impact on Pregnant Women and Infants
Arthur Ammann, Sahai Burrowes. UCSF Center for HIV Information, January 2007.
decorative spacerNutritional Considerations in the Use of ART in Resource-Limited Settings
World Health Organization, April 2006. [PDF 742K]
Provider Education and Training
decorative spacerTreatment Issues in Resource-Limited Settings
This course requires registration and technically expired in 2008. Richard E. Chaisson, Hoosen Coovadia, Mauro Schechter, Clinical Care Options. October 2007.
decorative spacerManagement of the ART Experienced Patient in Resource-limited Settings
Joel Gallant, Johns Hopkins Center for Clinical Global Health Education, January 11, 2007.
decorative spacerHIV Rapid Testing - Training Package
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 2006. The training package was developed to assist countries with equipping individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to establish policies and to perform testing in a manner that will assure reporting of test results that are reliable and accurate.
decorative spacerFollow-Up Care and Treatment for the HIV-Exposed or HIV-Infected Child
Arthur Ammann, Sahai Burrowes. In: Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Resource-Limited Settings: A Training Course. UCSF Center for HIV Information, February 2006.
decorative spacerCommunity Engagement for Antiretroviral Treatment: A Training Manual for Community-Based Organisations, Non-Governmental Organisations and People Living with HIV in Africa
International HIV/AIDS Alliance, December 2005. [PDF, 1.8MB]
decorative spacerHIV Curriculum for the Health Professional
Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative, Baylor College of Medicine, January 2010.
decorative spacerCore Competencies: Results from the International Consensus Meeting on HIV Service Delivery Training and Certification
WHO, August 2005.
decorative spacer WHO Basic ART Aid Training Course
WHO, September 2004.
decorative spacerNutrition and HIV/AIDS: A Training Manual
Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care in Uganda, Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, The LINKAGES Project, August 2003.
decorative spacerCare of Women Living in Limited Resorce Settings, ReproLearn Tutorial
ReproLearn, JHPIEGO Corporation, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), USAID, 2003.
Clinician Support Tools
decorative spacerHIV Clinical Cases Library
University of California San Francisco. February 2007.
decorative spacerHIV/AIDS Image Library
University of California San Francisco, December 2006.
decorative spacerHIV/AIDS Clinical Case Studies -- 101 Cases for Training Clinical Staff
Nazareth Hospital, Kenya, 2006. [PDF, 667K]
decorative spacerThe Columbia Clinical Manual
Miriam Rabkin, Wafaa El-Sadr, Elaine Abrams. The MTCT-Plus Initiative, International Center for AIDS Programs, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 2005. [PDF, 5.0MB]
Program Management Materials
decorative spacerProcurement & Supply Management Toolbox
A central repository for a wide range of health-related procurement supply management tools. The Toolbox facilitates quick selection and access to tools in the public domain. WHO, 2008.
decorative spacerWHO List of Prequalified Medicinal Products
A database with information on formulation, origin, and maker for TB, malaria and HIV medications preapproved by the WHO. 2008.
decorative spacerThe PIH Guide to the Community-Based Treatment of HIV in Resource-Poor Settings (2nd Ed.)
Partners In Health, August 2006. Also available in French.
decorative spacerUntangling The Web of Price Reductions: A Pricing Guide for the Purchase of ARVs in Developing Countries (15th Edition)
Médecins Sans Frontières, July 2012. [PDF,795K]
decorative spacerPrice & Quality Reporting (PQR)
Information on prices and quality of ARVs, anti-TB drugs, antimalarial drugs, and bed nets. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 2009.
decorative spacerNational AIDS Programmes: A Guide to Indicators for Monitoring and Evaluating National Antiretroviral Programmes
WHO, 2004. [PDF, 382K]
decorative spacerHandbook on Access to HIV/AIDS-Related Treatment: A Collection of Information, Tools and Resources for NGOs, CBOs and PLWHA Groups
UNAIDS, May 20, 2003. [PDF, 2.1MB]
decorative spacerWHO ARV Toolkit
Provides user-friendly technical guidance on planning and implementing antiretroviral treatment programs in resource-limited settings for an audience of program managers, implementers, and their partners in the public and private sectors.
Patient and Community Education
decorative spacerHIV, Health, and Your Community: A Guide for Action
Reuben Granich, Jonathan Mermin. The Hesperian Foundation, 2006. Translations of the 2001 edition of this book are available in Arabic, Iban, Telugu, Urdu, and Vietnamese.
decorative spacerSee HIV InSite's Links pages for:
decorative spacerbullet.gifCountries & Regions
decorative spacerbullet.gifInfections
decorative spacerbullet.gifNutrition
decorative spacerbullet.gifPolicy & Programmatic Responses
decorative spacerbullet.gifTreatment Access & Advocacy