Darunavir (Prezista)

Published August 09, 2006; Updated October 19, 2014
Susa Coffey, MD
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=ar-03-10
Selected References
1. Katlama  C, Esposito  R, Gatell  JM, Goffard  JC, Grinsztejn  B, Pozniak  A, Rockstroh  J, Stoehr  A, Vetter  N, Yeni  P, Parys  W, Vangeneugden  T; the POWER 1 study group.
Efficacy and safety of TMC114/ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV patients: 24-week results of POWER 1. AIDS. 2007 Feb;21(4):395-402
[PubMed ID: 17301557]
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The ongoing phase IIb POWER 1 (TMC114-C213) trial is designed to assess efficacy and safety of the protease inhibitor (PI) TMC114 (darunavir) in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients. DESIGN: This randomized, partially blinded, 24-week dose-finding study compared efficacy and safety of four doses of TMC114 plus low-dose ritonavir (TMC114/r) with investigator-selected control PI(s) (CPI[s]). METHODS: Patients with one or more primary PI mutation and HIV RNA > 1000 copies/ml received optimized background therapy, plus TMC114/r 400/100 mg once daily, 800/100 mg once daily, 400/100 mg twice daily or 600/100 mg twice daily, or CPI(s). The primary endpoint (intent-to-treat) compared proportions of patients achieving viral load reduction >or= 1.0 log10 copies/ml from baseline. RESULTS: In total, 318 patients were treated. Baseline mean viral load was 4.48 log10 copies/ml; median CD4 cell count was 179 cells/microl. In the CPI arm 62% of patients discontinued (virological failure: 54%); 10% of TMC114/r patients discontinued. More TMC114/r (69-77%) than CPI patients (25%) reached the primary endpoint (P < 0.001); 43-53% of TMC114/r patients and 18% of the CPI arm achieved viral load < 50 copies/ml (P < 0.001). TMC114/r demonstrated greater mean CD4 cell count increases versus CPI(s) (68-124 versus 20 cells/microl; P < 0.05). TMC114/r 600/100 mg twice daily demonstrated the highest virological and immunological responses. Adverse event incidence was similar between treatments; headache and diarrhoea were more common with CPI(s). CONCLUSIONS: TMC114/r demonstrated statistically higher 24-week virological response rates and CD4 cell count increases than CPI(s). TMC114/r 600/100 mg twice daily has received regulatory approval in treatment-experienced patients.
2. Haubrich  R, Berger  D, Chiliade  P, Colson  A, Conant  M, Gallant  J, Wilkin  T, Nadler  J, Pierone  G, Saag  M, van Baelen  B, Lefebvre  E; POWER 2 Study Group.
Week 24 efficacy and safety of TMC114/ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV patients. AIDS. 2007 Mar;21(6):F11-8
[PubMed ID: 17413685]
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Agents for the treatment of HIV-1-infected patients with resistance to current antiretroviral (ART) drugs are needed. METHODS: TMC114-C202 was a randomized, partially blinded, dose-finding study in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients with one or more primary protease inhibitor (PI) mutations and HIV-1 RNA > 1000 copies/ml. Patients were randomized to receive one of four TMC114 doses given with ritonavir (TMC114/r) or investigator-selected control PI drug(s) (CPI); all received an optimized background regimen. The primary intent-to-treat analysis compared the proportion of patients achieving a >or= 1 log10 copies/ml HIV-1 RNA reduction at week 24 between the treatment arms using the time-to-loss of virological response algorithm. RESULTS: For 278 patients at baseline, mean HIV-1 RNA was 4.7 log10 copies/ml, median CD4 cell count was 106 cells/mul; HIV-1 isolates had a median of three primary PI mutations and a median fold change in lopinavir susceptibility of 80. Discontinuation rates were 23% for TMC114/r versus 64% for CPI. More patients in each TMC114/r dose group achieved >or= 1.0 log10 copies/ml reduction in HIV-1 RNA than in the CPI group (45-62% versus 14%; P <or= 0.003): patients taking TMC114/r twice daily had the greatest responses. HIV-1 RNA was < 50 copies/ml in 18-39% of TMC114/r patients versus 7% CPI (P < 0.001 for highest dose). Mean CD4 cell count increased by 59-75 versus 12 cells/mul (TMC114/r versus CPI: P <or= 0.005). Overall adverse event rates were similar in both arms, without significant differences among TMC114/r groups. CONCLUSIONS: TMC114/r treatment resulted in greater virological and immunological responses in ART-experienced patients compared with CPI at 24 weeks.
6. Clotet  B, Bellos  N, Molina  JM, Cooper  D, Goffard  JC, Lazzarin  A, Wöhrmann  A, Katlama  C, Wilkin  T, Haubrich  R, Cohen  C, Farthing  C, Jayaweera  D, Markowitz  M, Ruane  P, Spinosa-Guzman  S, Lefebvre  E; POWER 1 and 2 study groups.
Efficacy and safety of darunavir-ritonavir at week 48 in treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1 infection in POWER 1 and 2: a pooled subgroup analysis of data from two randomised trials. Lancet. 2007 Apr;369(9568):1169-78
[PubMed ID: 17416261]
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The continuing, randomised, multinational, phase IIB POWER 1 and 2 studies aim to evaluate efficacy and safety of darunavir in combination with low-dose ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients. We did a pooled subgroup analysis to update results at week 48 for patients receiving the recommended dose of darunavir-ritonavir compared with those receiving other protease inhibitors (PIs). METHODS: After 24-week dose-finding phases and primary efficacy analyses, patients randomised to receive darunavir-ritonavir were given 600/100 mg twice daily, and patients receiving control PIs continued on assigned treatment into the longer-term, open-label phase; all patients continued on optimised background regimen. We assessed patients who had reached week 48 or discontinued earlier at the time of analysis; for the darunavir-ritonavir group, only patients who received 600/100 mg twice daily from baseline were included. Analyses were intention-to-treat. The POWER 2 study (TMC114-C202) is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00071097). FINDINGS: At week 48, 67 of 110 (61%) darunavir-ritonavir patients compared with 18 of 120 (15%) of control PI patients had viral load reductions of 1 log10 copies per mL or greater from baseline (primary endpoint; difference in response rates 46%, 95% CI 35%-57%, p<0.0001). Based on a logistic regression model including stratification factors (baseline number of primary PI mutations, use of enfuvirtide, baseline viral load) and study as covariates, the difference in response was 50% (odds ratio 11.72, 95% CI 5.75-23.89). In the darunavir-ritonavir group, rates of adverse events were mostly lower than or similar to those in the control group when corrected for treatment exposure. No unexpected safety concerns were identified. INTERPRETATION: Efficacy responses with darunavir-ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily plus optimised background regimen were greater than those with control PI and were sustained to at least week 48, with favourable safety and tolerability in treatment-experienced patients. This regimen could expand the treatment options available for such patients.
8. Madruga  JV, Berger  D, McMurchie  M, Suter  F, Banhegyi  D, Ruxrungtham  K, Norris  D, Lefebvre  E, de Béthune  MP, Tomaka  F, De Pauw  M, Vangeneugden  T, Spinosa-Guzman  S; TITAN study group.
Efficacy and safety of darunavir-ritonavir compared with that of lopinavir-ritonavir at 48 weeks in treatment-experienced, HIV-infected patients in TITAN: a randomised controlled phase III trial. Lancet. 2007 Jul;370(9581):49-58
[PubMed ID: 17617272]
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: The protease inhibitor darunavir has been shown to be efficacious in highly treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection, but needs to be assessed in patients with a broader range of treatment experience. We did a randomised, controlled, phase III trial (TITAN) to compare 48-week efficacy and safety of darunavir-ritonavir with that of lopinavir-ritonavir in treatment-experienced, lopinavir-naive patients. METHODS: Patients received optimised background regimen plus non-blinded treatment with darunavir-ritonavir 600/100 mg twice daily or lopinavir-ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was non-inferiority (95% CI lower limit for the difference in treatment response -12% or greater) for HIV RNA of less than 400 copies per mL in plasma at week 48 (per-protocol analysis). TITAN (TMC114-C214) is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00110877. FINDINGS: Of 595 patients randomised and treated, 187 (31%) were protease inhibitor naive; 476 of 582 (82%) were susceptible to four or more protease inhibitors. At week 48, significantly more darunavir-ritonavir than lopinavir-ritonavir patients had HIV RNA of less than 400 copies per mL (77% [220 of 286] vs 68% [199 of 293]; estimated difference 9%, 95% CI 2-16). Fewer virological failures treated with darunavir-ritonavir than with lopinavir-ritonavir developed primary protease inhibitor mutations (21% [n=6] vs 36% [n=20]) and nucleoside analogue-associated mutations (14% [n=4] vs 27% [n=15]). Safety data were generally similar between the groups; grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 80 (27%) darunavir-ritonavir and 89 (30%) lopinavir-ritonavir patients. INTERPRETATION: In lopinavir-naive, treatment-experienced patients, darunavir-ritonavir was non-inferior to lopinavir-ritonavir treatment in terms of our virological endpoint, and should therefore be considered as a treatment option for this population.
10. Darunavir [package insert]. East Bridgewater, NJ: Tibotec Therapeutics.