Darunavir (Prezista)

Published August 09, 2006; Updated October 08, 2015
Susa Coffey, MD
Selected References
1. Katlama  C, Esposito  R, Gatell  JM, Goffard  JC, Grinsztejn  B, Pozniak  A, Rockstroh  J, Stoehr  A, Vetter  N, Yeni  P, Parys  W, Vangeneugden  T; the POWER 1 study group.
Efficacy and safety of TMC114/ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV patients: 24-week results of POWER 1. AIDS. 2007 Feb;21(4):395-402
[PubMed ID: 17301557]
BACKGROUND: The ongoing phase IIb POWER 1 (TMC114-C213) trial is designed to assess efficacy and safety of the protease inhibitor (PI) TMC114 (darunavir) in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients. DESIGN: This randomized, partially blinded, 24-week dose-finding study compared efficacy and safety of four doses of TMC114 plus low-dose ritonavir (TMC114/r) with investigator-selected control PI(s) (CPI[s]). METHODS: Patients with one or more primary PI mutation and HIV RNA > 1000 copies/ml received optimized background therapy, plus TMC114/r 400/100 mg once daily, 800/100 mg once daily, 400/100 mg twice daily or 600/100 mg twice daily, or CPI(s). The primary endpoint (intent-to-treat) compared proportions of patients achieving viral load reduction >or= 1.0 log10 copies/ml from baseline. RESULTS: In total, 318 patients were treated. Baseline mean viral load was 4.48 log10 copies/ml; median CD4 cell count was 179 cells/microl. In the CPI arm 62% of patients discontinued (virological failure: 54%); 10% of TMC114/r patients discontinued. More TMC114/r (69-77%) than CPI patients (25%) reached the primary endpoint (P < 0.001); 43-53% of TMC114/r patients and 18% of the CPI arm achieved viral load < 50 copies/ml (P < 0.001). TMC114/r demonstrated greater mean CD4 cell count increases versus CPI(s) (68-124 versus 20 cells/microl; P < 0.05). TMC114/r 600/100 mg twice daily demonstrated the highest virological and immunological responses. Adverse event incidence was similar between treatments; headache and diarrhoea were more common with CPI(s). CONCLUSIONS: TMC114/r demonstrated statistically higher 24-week virological response rates and CD4 cell count increases than CPI(s). TMC114/r 600/100 mg twice daily has received regulatory approval in treatment-experienced patients.
2. Haubrich  R, Berger  D, Chiliade  P, Colson  A, Conant  M, Gallant  J, Wilkin  T, Nadler  J, Pierone  G, Saag  M, van Baelen  B, Lefebvre  E; POWER 2 Study Group.
Week 24 efficacy and safety of TMC114/ritonavir in treatment-experienced HIV patients. AIDS. 2007 Mar;21(6):F11-8
[PubMed ID: 17413685]
BACKGROUND: Agents for the treatment of HIV-1-infected patients with resistance to current antiretroviral (ART) drugs are needed. METHODS: TMC114-C202 was a randomized, partially blinded, dose-finding study in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients with one or more primary protease inhibitor (PI) mutations and HIV-1 RNA > 1000 copies/ml. Patients were randomized to receive one of four TMC114 doses given with ritonavir (TMC114/r) or investigator-selected control PI drug(s) (CPI); all received an optimized background regimen. The primary intent-to-treat analysis compared the proportion of patients achieving a >or= 1 log10 copies/ml HIV-1 RNA reduction at week 24 between the treatment arms using the time-to-loss of virological response algorithm. RESULTS: For 278 patients at baseline, mean HIV-1 RNA was 4.7 log10 copies/ml, median CD4 cell count was 106 cells/mul; HIV-1 isolates had a median of three primary PI mutations and a median fold change in lopinavir susceptibility of 80. Discontinuation rates were 23% for TMC114/r versus 64% for CPI. More patients in each TMC114/r dose group achieved >or= 1.0 log10 copies/ml reduction in HIV-1 RNA than in the CPI group (45-62% versus 14%; P <or= 0.003): patients taking TMC114/r twice daily had the greatest responses. HIV-1 RNA was < 50 copies/ml in 18-39% of TMC114/r patients versus 7% CPI (P < 0.001 for highest dose). Mean CD4 cell count increased by 59-75 versus 12 cells/mul (TMC114/r versus CPI: P <or= 0.005). Overall adverse event rates were similar in both arms, without significant differences among TMC114/r groups. CONCLUSIONS: TMC114/r treatment resulted in greater virological and immunological responses in ART-experienced patients compared with CPI at 24 weeks.