January 25, 2001; Updated
October 18, 2006|
|Susa Coffey, MD|
| 3. ||Lichterfeld
Long-term efficacy and safety of ritonavir/indinavir at 400/400 mg twice a day in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as first line antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med. 2002 Jan;3(1):37-43
[PubMed ID: 12059949]
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term antiretroviral efficacy and tolerability of dual protease inhibitor (PI) therapy with indinavir (IDV)/ritonavir (RTV) at 400/400 mg twice a day (BID) in combination with two nucleoside reverse trancriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). DESIGN AND METHODS: In an open-label, uncontrolled multicentre clinical trial, antiretroviral therapy naive patients (n = 93) with a high median baseline HIV-1 RNA level of 210 000 copies/mL (range 17 000-2 943 000) and a median CD4 cell count of 195 copies/microL (range 4-656 copies/microL) were started on a regimen of either zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) (49%), stavudine (d4T)/3TC (38%) or d4T/didanosine (ddI) (14%) plus RTV and IDV, each at 400 mg BID. CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA were determined at 4-week intervals for a duration of 72 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed on treatment as well as by intent to treat, where missing values were counted as failures. RESULTS: HIV RNA levels below the limit of detection were achieved in 59.5% (< 80 copies/mL) and 63% (< 500 copies/mL) of patients according to the intent to treat analysis at week 72. In the on treatment analysis, the proportion of patients reaching an undetectable viral load was 94.5% (< 80 copies/mL) and 100% (< 500 copies/mL), respectively. Apart from diarrhoea and nausea, serum lipid abnormalities were identified as the most prominent adverse reaction. No cases of nephrotoxicity occurred during the entire observation period of 72 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that quadruple therapy with RTV/IDV and two NRTIs induces potent, durable and safe HIV suppression and might be particularly beneficial as a first line therapy for patients with a high baseline viral load.
| 4. ||Dragsted
JD; MaxCmin1 Trial Group.|
Randomized trial to evaluate indinavir/ritonavir versus saquinavir/ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: the MaxCmin1 Trial. J Infect Dis. 2003 Sep;188(5):635-42
[PubMed ID: 12934178]
This trial assessed the rate of virological failure at 48 weeks in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients assigned indinavir/ritonavir (Idv/Rtv; 800/100 mg 2 times daily) or saquinavir/ritonavir (Sqv/Rtv; 1000/100 mg 2 times daily) in an open-label, randomized (1:1), multicenter, phase 4 design. Three hundred six patients began the assigned treatment. At 48 weeks, virological failure was seen in 43 (27%) of 158 and 37 (25%) of 148 patients in the Idv/Rtv and Sqv/Rtv arms, respectively. The time to virological failure did not differ between study arms (P=.76). When switching from randomized treatment was counted as failure, this was seen in 78 of 158 patients in the Idv/Rtv arm, versus 51 of 148 patients in the Sqv/Rtv arm (P=.009). A switch from the randomized treatment occurred in 64 (41%) of 158 patients in the Idv/Rtv arm, versus 40 (27%) of 148 patients in the Sqv/Rtv arm (P=.013). Sixty-four percent of the switches occurred because of adverse events. A greater number of treatment-limiting adverse events were observed in the Idv/Rtv arm, relative to the Sqv/Rtv arm. In conclusion, Rtv-boosed Sqv and Idv were found to have comparable antiretroviral effects in the doses studied.