January 25, 2001; Updated
February 12, 2015|
|Susa Coffey, MD|
| 3. ||Lichterfeld
Long-term efficacy and safety of ritonavir/indinavir at 400/400 mg twice a day in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as first line antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med. 2002 Jan;3(1):37-43
[PubMed ID: 12059949]
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term antiretroviral efficacy and tolerability of dual protease inhibitor (PI) therapy with indinavir (IDV)/ritonavir (RTV) at 400/400 mg twice a day (BID) in combination with two nucleoside reverse trancriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). DESIGN AND METHODS: In an open-label, uncontrolled multicentre clinical trial, antiretroviral therapy naive patients (n = 93) with a high median baseline HIV-1 RNA level of 210 000 copies/mL (range 17 000-2 943 000) and a median CD4 cell count of 195 copies/microL (range 4-656 copies/microL) were started on a regimen of either zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) (49%), stavudine (d4T)/3TC (38%) or d4T/didanosine (ddI) (14%) plus RTV and IDV, each at 400 mg BID. CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA were determined at 4-week intervals for a duration of 72 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed on treatment as well as by intent to treat, where missing values were counted as failures. RESULTS: HIV RNA levels below the limit of detection were achieved in 59.5% (< 80 copies/mL) and 63% (< 500 copies/mL) of patients according to the intent to treat analysis at week 72. In the on treatment analysis, the proportion of patients reaching an undetectable viral load was 94.5% (< 80 copies/mL) and 100% (< 500 copies/mL), respectively. Apart from diarrhoea and nausea, serum lipid abnormalities were identified as the most prominent adverse reaction. No cases of nephrotoxicity occurred during the entire observation period of 72 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that quadruple therapy with RTV/IDV and two NRTIs induces potent, durable and safe HIV suppression and might be particularly beneficial as a first line therapy for patients with a high baseline viral load.
| 5. ||Para
Baseline human immunodeficiency virus type 1 phenotype, genotype, and RNA response after switching from long-term hard-capsule saquinavir to indinavir or soft-gel-capsule saquinavir in AIDS clinical trials group protocol 333. J Infect Dis. 2000 Sep;182(3):733-43
[PubMed ID: 10950766]
AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 333 was an open-label trial of a switch from saquinavir (SQV) hard capsules (SQVhc) to indinavir (IDV) or saquinavir soft-gel capsules (SQVsgc) after >48 weeks of prior treatment with SQVhc. Eighty-nine subjects received IDV or SQVsgc or continued to receive SQVhc and continued unchanged treatment with non-protease-inhibitor antivirals for 8 weeks. Subjects receiving SQVhc then switched treatment to IDV. Baseline drug susceptibility and protease gene sequencing were done; 12 codons related to IDV and SQV resistance were analyzed. After 112 weeks (median) of SQVhc, the fall in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA level from baseline was significantly greater with IDV and was inversely correlated with the number of protease substitutions. The number of substitutions also correlated with baseline CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA level, SQV experience, and drug susceptibility. Substitution at codon 10, which occurred only in isolates with >/=2 substitutions, was associated with blunted RNA response. IDV IC(50) correlated with HIV-1 RNA response after the switch to IDV but added little predictive power once the genotype was considered.