Indinavir (Crixivan)

Published January 25, 2001; Updated October 18, 2006
Susa Coffey, MD
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=ar-03-03
Selected References
3. Lichterfeld  M, Nischalke  HD, Bergmann  F, Wiesel  W, Rieke  A, Theisen  A, Fätkenheuer  G, Oette  M, Carls  H, Fenske  S, Nadler  M, Knechten  H, Wasmuth  JC, Rockstroh  JK.
Long-term efficacy and safety of ritonavir/indinavir at 400/400 mg twice a day in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as first line antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med. 2002 Jan;3(1):37-43
[PubMed ID: 12059949]
Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term antiretroviral efficacy and tolerability of dual protease inhibitor (PI) therapy with indinavir (IDV)/ritonavir (RTV) at 400/400 mg twice a day (BID) in combination with two nucleoside reverse trancriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). DESIGN AND METHODS: In an open-label, uncontrolled multicentre clinical trial, antiretroviral therapy naive patients (n = 93) with a high median baseline HIV-1 RNA level of 210 000 copies/mL (range 17 000-2 943 000) and a median CD4 cell count of 195 copies/microL (range 4-656 copies/microL) were started on a regimen of either zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) (49%), stavudine (d4T)/3TC (38%) or d4T/didanosine (ddI) (14%) plus RTV and IDV, each at 400 mg BID. CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA were determined at 4-week intervals for a duration of 72 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed on treatment as well as by intent to treat, where missing values were counted as failures. RESULTS: HIV RNA levels below the limit of detection were achieved in 59.5% (< 80 copies/mL) and 63% (< 500 copies/mL) of patients according to the intent to treat analysis at week 72. In the on treatment analysis, the proportion of patients reaching an undetectable viral load was 94.5% (< 80 copies/mL) and 100% (< 500 copies/mL), respectively. Apart from diarrhoea and nausea, serum lipid abnormalities were identified as the most prominent adverse reaction. No cases of nephrotoxicity occurred during the entire observation period of 72 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that quadruple therapy with RTV/IDV and two NRTIs induces potent, durable and safe HIV suppression and might be particularly beneficial as a first line therapy for patients with a high baseline viral load.
4. Dragsted  UB, Gerstoft  J, Pedersen  C, Peters  B, Duran  A, Obel  N, Castagna  A, Cahn  P, Clumeck  N, Bruun  JN, Benetucci  J, Hill  A, Cassetti  I, Vernazza  P, Youle  M, Fox  Z, Lundgren  JD; MaxCmin1 Trial Group.
Randomized trial to evaluate indinavir/ritonavir versus saquinavir/ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: the MaxCmin1 Trial. J Infect Dis. 2003 Sep;188(5):635-42
[PubMed ID: 12934178]
Abstract:
This trial assessed the rate of virological failure at 48 weeks in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients assigned indinavir/ritonavir (Idv/Rtv; 800/100 mg 2 times daily) or saquinavir/ritonavir (Sqv/Rtv; 1000/100 mg 2 times daily) in an open-label, randomized (1:1), multicenter, phase 4 design. Three hundred six patients began the assigned treatment. At 48 weeks, virological failure was seen in 43 (27%) of 158 and 37 (25%) of 148 patients in the Idv/Rtv and Sqv/Rtv arms, respectively. The time to virological failure did not differ between study arms (P=.76). When switching from randomized treatment was counted as failure, this was seen in 78 of 158 patients in the Idv/Rtv arm, versus 51 of 148 patients in the Sqv/Rtv arm (P=.009). A switch from the randomized treatment occurred in 64 (41%) of 158 patients in the Idv/Rtv arm, versus 40 (27%) of 148 patients in the Sqv/Rtv arm (P=.013). Sixty-four percent of the switches occurred because of adverse events. A greater number of treatment-limiting adverse events were observed in the Idv/Rtv arm, relative to the Sqv/Rtv arm. In conclusion, Rtv-boosed Sqv and Idv were found to have comparable antiretroviral effects in the doses studied.