Efavirenz (Sustiva, Stocrin)

Published January 25, 2001; Updated May 2013
Susa Coffey, MD
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=ar-02-03
Selected Reference
15. Squires  K, Lazzarin  A, Gatell  JM, Powderly  WG, Pokrovskiy  V, Delfraissy  JF, Jemsek  J, Rivero  A, Rozenbaum  W, Schrader  S, Sension  M, Vibhagool  A, Thiry  A, Giordano  M.
Comparison of once-daily atazanavir with efavirenz, each in combination with fixed-dose zidovudine and lamivudine, as initial therapy for patients infected with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Aug;36(5):1011-9
[PubMed ID: 15247553]
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Atazanavir, an azapeptide protease inhibitor (PI), has pharmacokinetics that allow once-daily dosing, and it is not associated with significant PI-associated dyslipidemia. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, 2-arm study comparing the antiviral efficacy and safety of atazanavir 400 mg administered once daily with efavirenz 600 mg administered once daily in combination with open-label fixed-dose zidovudine plus lamivudine twice daily. The 810 treatment-naive patients were stratified by HIV RNA level. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of treated patients with HIV RNA levels <400 copies/mL through week 48. RESULTS: At week 48, HIV RNA levels were <400 copies/mL in 70% of patients receiving atazanavir and 64% of patients receiving efavirenz (intent-to-treat, difference; 95% confidence interval: 5.2%; -1.2%, 11.7%). Median CD4 cell counts increased at comparable magnitudes and rates in the 2 treatment arms (mean change at week 48: 176 cells/mm with atazanavir, 160 cells/mm with efavirenz). Atazanavir-treated patients relative to comparator-treated patients did not demonstrate significant increases in total cholesterol, fasting low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or fasting triglycerides over 48 weeks of therapy. Atazanavir-linked bilirubin elevations infrequently resulted in treatment discontinuation (<1%). Atazanavir treatment did not increase fasting glucose or insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS: For initial HIV treatment, a highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen of atazanavir/zidovudine/lamivudine is as efficacious and well tolerated as the combination of efavirenz/zidovudine/lamivudine.