University of California, San Francisco Logo

University of California, San Francisco | About UCSF | Search UCSF | UCSF Medical Center

Home > Countries & Regions > Sub-Saharan Africa > South Africa
South Africa
Updated June 2009
HIV/AIDS-Specific Country Profiles
Health and Development Profiles
Guidelines and Best Practices
Surveys and Assessments
Policy Reports and Papers
Journal Articles
Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
Online Books and Chapters
Provider Education and Training
Clinician Support Tools
Program Management Materials
Patient and Community Education
National Organizations
transparent image
transparent image
transparent image
Research Institutions
International Organizations
HIV/AIDS Web Sites
Conferences and Events
Comprehensive Indicator Report
Quick Links
List of all countries
Indicator Database
Focus on Care and Treatment
HIV/AIDS in South Africa
Population, 201353,000,000
People living with HIV/AIDS, 20126,100,000
Women (aged 15+) with HIV/AIDS, 20123,400,000
Children with HIV/AIDS, 2012410,000
Adult HIV prevalence (%), 201217.9
AIDS deaths, 2012240,000
nd = No data
Source: Population Reference Bureau & UNAIDS
South Africa map
View detailed map
View full indicator report

These pages will be updated regularly. To suggest a document for inclusion on this page, please send an email to

HIV/AIDS-Specific Country Profiles
PEPFAR Country Profile
A summary of the activities of the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in selected countries.
UNAIDS Country Profile
A brief summary of national socioeconomic conditions in the context of the HIV epidemic, and information (where available) on UNAIDS' country-level activities.
UNGASS 2008 Country Progress Report
Reports progress made in implementing the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. The report includes summary indicator data through the end of 2007. [PDF, 1.2MB]
UNAIDS/WHO Epidemiological Fact Sheet
Statistics on the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections, and discussion of knowledge and behaviors related to HIV transmission. 2008. [PDF, 967K]
Global Fund Country Programs
Discussion of the national epidemic and description of HIV/AIDS projects supported by the Global Fund, including funding details, planned activities, and expected results.
IRIN Country Profile
Contact information for national HIV/AIDS organizations, selected indicators, antiretroviral treatment information, and an epidemiological fact sheet from the United Nation's Integrated Regional Information Networks.
Kaiser Family Foundation Country Profile
Information on South Africa's health care plans and national health system development, focusing on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Health and Development Profiles
CIA World Factbook
Extensive data over a range of fields, including geography, population, government, the economy, the military, and communications.
Population Reference Bureau Country Profile
Key demographic, health, and development indicators, selected reports and articles, and links.
UNICEF Country Tables
Statistics in the areas of population, mortality, general and reproductive health, and education.
WHO Country Profile
Links to tables containing general health indicators, country profiles on specific diseases, and selected health-related documents. Also in Spanish and French.
Guidelines and Best Practices
Clinical Guidelines for the Management of HIV & AIDS in Adults and Adolescents
Department of Health, Republic of South Africa, 2010. [PDF, 254K]
South African Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines
Department of Health, Republic of South Africa, 2010. [PDF, 63K]
Guidelines for the Management of HIV-infected Children [2nd Edition]
Department of Health, Republic of South Africa, 2010. [PDF, 628K]
Clinical Guidelines: PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission)
Department of Health, Republic of South Africa, 2010. [PDF, 242K]
Operational plan for comprehensive HIV and AIDS care, management and treatment for South Africa
Department of Health, Republic of South Africa, January 2005. See also the government's question and answer fact sheet.
National Guideline on Home-Base Care/Community-Based Care- December 2001
Department of Health, Republic of South Africa, December 2001.
South African National Guidelines on Nutrition for People Living with TB, HIV/AIDS and Other Chronic Debilitating Conditions
Department of Health, Republic of South Africa, 2001.
Surveys and Assessments
South African National HIV Prevalence Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2008: The Health of Our Children
Human Sciences Research Council, 2010. [PDF, 3.4MB]
South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2008 - A Turning Tide among Teenagers?
Human Sciences Research Council. 2009. [PDF, 652K]
Summary Report National HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Survey South Africa--2006
National Department of Health, South Africa. 2007. [PDF 34K]
The Demographic Impact of HIV/AIDS in South Africa: National and Provincial Indicators for 2006
Actuarial Society of South Africa, South African Medical Research Council. December, 2006. [PDF, 542K]
Reducing the Transmission of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Mining Community - Findings from the Carletonville Mothusimpilo Intervention Project: 1998 to 2001
Horizons Program, Population Council, September 2005. [PDF, 201K]
Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the Comprehensive HIV and AIDS Care, Management and Treatment Plan for South Africa
Department of Health, Republic of South Africa, September 2004. [PDF, 134K]
HIV and Sexual Behaviour among Young South Africans: A National Survey of 15-24 Year Olds
Reproductive Health Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, April 6, 2004. [PDF, 1.4MB]
The National Household HIV Prevalence and Risk Survey of South African Children
Heather Brookes, Olive Shisana, Linda Richter. Human Sciences Research Council, 2004.
Policy Reports and Papers
Feasibility, Acceptability, Effectiveness and Cost of Models of Integrating HIV Prevention and Counseling and Testing for HIV within Family Planning Services in North West Province, South Africa
Department of Health, North West Province, South Africa. September 2008.
HIV and AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa, 2007-2011
Ministry of Health, South Africa, March 14, 2007.
Annual National Health Plan--2006/07
Department of Public Health, Republic of South Africa. 2007 [PDF, 117K]
Exploring Current Practices in Pediatric ARV Rollout and Integration with Early Childhood Programs in South Africa: A Rapid Situational Analysis
Horizons Program, Population Council, June 2006. [PDF, 480K]
HIV and AIDS Scenarios for South Africa: 2005-2025 -- An Overview of Factors Underlying Future Trends
Centre for AIDS Development, Research and Evaluation (CADRE), Metropolitan Holdings Limited, June 2006. [PDF, 952K]
Republic of South Africa: Progress Report on Declaration of Commitment on HIV and AIDS
Department of Health, February 2006.
Exploring the Role of Family Caregivers and Home-Based Care Programs in Meeting the Needs of People Living With HIV/AIDS
Horizons Research Update, Population Council, May 2005. [PDF, 379K] See also Programmatic Implications of a Cost Study of Home-Based Care Programs in South Africa.
HIV Risk Exposure Among Young Children: A Study of 2-9 Year Olds Served by Public Health Facilities in the Free State, South Africa
Olive Shisana, Shaheen Mehtar, Thabang Mosala, Nompumelelo Zungu-Dirwayi, Thomas Rehle, Pelisa Dana, Mark Colvin, Warren Parker, Cathy Connolly, Rory Dunbar, Faniswa Gxamza. Human Sciences Research Council, 2005. [PDF, 401K]
HIV/AIDS as a Development Challenge in South Africa: The Responses of Youth Organizations in KwaZulu-Natal Province
Nkosinathi Ngcobo. Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division, USAID, September 2004. [PDF, 650K]
Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Unsafe Sexual Behaviors Among Young Women and Men in South Africa
Kelly Hallman. Population Council, June 2004. [PDF, 1.1MB]
An Audit of HIV/AIDS Policies in Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe
Nompumelelo Zungu-Dirwayi, Olive Shisana, Eric Udjo, Thabang Mosala, John Seager. Human Sciences Research Council, 2004.
Family and Community Interventions for Children Affected by AIDS
Linda Richter, Julie Manegold and Riashnee Pather. Human Sciences Research Council, 2004.
Full Report of the Joint Health and Treasury Task Team Charged with Examining Treatment Options to Supplement Comprehensive Care for HIV/AIDS in the Public Health Sector
Joint Health and Treasury Task Team. South African Department of Health, August 8, 2003. [PDF, 1MB]
Journal Articles
Antiretroviral therapy and TB notification rates in a high HIV prevalence South African community
Middelkoop K, Bekker LG, Myer L, Johnson LF, Kloos M, Morrow C, Wood R. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 56:3, 263-269. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Changes in programmatic outcomes during 7 years of scale-up at a community-based antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa
Nglazi MD, Lawn SD, Kaplan R, Kranzer K, Orrell C, Wood R, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010; 56(1):e1-8. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
High rates of survival, immune reconstitution and virologic suppression on second-line antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
Fox MP, Ive P, Long L. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Oct 15. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
A decline in new HIV infections in South Africa: Estimating HIV incidence from three national HIV surveys in 2002, 2005 and 2008
Rehle TM, Hallett TB, Shisana O, et al. PLoS ONE. June 14, 2010; 5(6): e11094.
Short-term and long-term risk of tuberculosis associated with CD4 cell recovery during antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
Lawn SD, Myer L, Edwards D, et al. AIDS. 2009 Aug 24;23(13):1717-25. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Test and tell: correlates and consequences of testing and disclosure of HIV status in South Africa (HTPN 043 Project Accept)
Wong LH, Van Rooyen H, Modiba P, et al. JAIDS. 2009;50(2):215-22. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Successful integration of tuberculosis and HIV treatment in rural South Africa: The Sizonq'oba Study
Gandhi N, Moll A, Lalloo U, et al. JAIDS. 2009 Jan;50(1):37-43. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India to inform resource allocation
Dandona L, Kumar SG, Kumar G, Dandona R. AIDS. 2009;23(2):233-42. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Randomized trial of a community-based alcohol-related HIV risk-reduction intervention for men and women in Cape Town, South Africa
Kalichman SC, Simbayi LC, Vermaak R, Cain D, Smith G, Mthebu J. Ann Behav Med. 2008 Oct 4. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Effects of duration of HIV infection and secondary tuberculosis transmission on tuberculosis incidence in the South African gold mines
Glynn J, Murray J, Bester A, Nelson G, Shearer S, Sonnenberg P. AIDS. 2008;22:1859-67. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
HIV/AIDS risk reduction counseling for alcohol using sexually transmitted infections clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa
Kalichman SC, Leickness CS, Vermaak R, Cain D, Jooste S, Peltzer K. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;44(5):594-600. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Impact of Stepping Stones on incidence of HIV and HSV-2 and sexual behaviour in rural South Africa: cluster randomized controlled trial
Jewkes R, Nduna M, Levin J, et al. BMJ. 2008;337:1-11. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
A cluster-randomized trial of provider-initiated (opt-out) HIV counseling and testing of tuberculosis patients in South Africa
Pope D, DeLuca N, Kali P, et al. JAIDS. 2008 Jun;48(2):190-95. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Estimating the lost benefits of antiretroviral drug use in South Africa
Chigwedere P, Seage GR 3rd, Gruskin S, Lee TH, Essex M. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 1;49(4):410-5
Intervention to promote exclusive breast-feeding for the first 6 months of life in a high HIV prevalence area
Bland RM, Little KE, Coovadia HM, Coutsoudis A, Rollins NC, Newell M-L. AIDS 2008;22:883-91. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Electronic measurement of adherence to pediatric antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
Muller A, Bode S, Myer L, Roux P, von Steinbuchel N. AIDS 2008;27:257-62. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Characteristics and outcomes of adult patients lost to follow-up at an antiretroviral treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa
Dalal RP, MacPhail C, Mqhayi M, Wing J, Feldman C, Chersich MF, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008 Jan 1;47(1):101-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Predicting the impact of a partially effective HIV vaccine and subsequent risk behavior change on the heterosexual HIV epidemic in low- and middle-income countries: A South African example
Andersson KM, Owens DK, Vardas E, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Paltiel AD. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Sep 1;46(1):78-90. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
Providing HIV Treatment in an Uncertain Financial Climate
Peter Navario, CFR Fellow for Global Health, interviewed by Toni Johnson. June 25, 2009. [Podcast]
Multiple and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR/XDR TB) and HIV
Dr. Friedland defines terminology and describes his work with MDR and XDR-TB in Tugela Ferry, KwaZulu Natal where resources are limited. Grand Rounds, Positive Health Program, UCSF and SFGH, October 3, 2007. Audiofile and slides.
Paediatric ARV Roll-Out in South Africa
Horizons Program/Population Council, University of Cape Town, March 2005. [PDF, 169K] Report on a Consultative Workshop, Johannesburg, South Africa, January 21, 2005.
HIV InSite Interview with Benkong Shih (Harold Lemke)
Laurence Peiperl, October 2004. Interview with Benkong Shih (Harold Lemke) about his experiences setting up AIDS treatment and support services in Malawi and South Africa.
Online Books and Chapters
The Current and Future Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic on South Africa's Children
Chris Desmond and Jeff Gow, in: "AIDS, Public Policy, and Child Well-Being" (Chapter 6), UNICEF, June 2002. [PDF, 380K]
Provider Education and Training
Antiretroviral Treatment Skills and Knowledge Notebook for Community Workers in Southern Africa
Southern Africa HIV and AIDS Information Dissemination Service (SAfAIDS), USAID, 2008. [PDF, 1.79MB]
HITCH Training Slide Set 1: HIV/AIDS Overview for Nurses--How HIV Causes AIDS
Sunanda Sirsi, Hosted Information on Treatment and Care of HIV/AIDS (HITCH) Project, UCSF Center for HIV Information, June 2004. [PowerPoint, 264K] See also Slide Set 2: Antiretroviral Drug Overview for Nurses and Slide Set 3: Special Considerations in Antiretroviral Therapy.
Clinician Support Tools
Clinical Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy Management for Displaced Populations
Southern African HIV Clinicians Society, United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), 2007. [PDF, 989K]
Care of the HIV Positive Patient - Protocols for the Anti Retroviral Therapy Clinic
Good Shepherd Hospital, February 2005. [PDF, 182K]
Program Management Materials
Handbook for Facilitating Development and Governance Responses to HIV and AIDS
Medical Research Council, South Africa. 2008.
Dare to be Different: Enhancing Life Skills Education for HIV Prevention in South African Schools
Horizons Program, Population Council. 2008. [PDF, 440K]
Education and HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook of HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs - South Africa
See also part two, World Bank, 2008. [PDF, 236K]
Gender and HIV: A Training Manual for Southern African Media and Communicators
Gender Links, AIDS Law Project, May 2004.
Patient and Community Education
Understanding and Challenging HIV/AIDS Stigma
Center for HIV/AIDS Networking (HIVAN), 2005. [PDF, 1.8MB]
I Am Pregnant. Should I Have an HIV Test?
Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, South Africa, 2004. [PDF, 179K] One of a series of patient brochures. Center for HIV Information staff have modified these files so that they can be edited for local use in Adobe Acrobat version 6.0 or later, or Adobe InDesign version 2.0 or later. To obtain the InDesign brochure files please send a request to See also:
I Tested Negative: Staying HIV-Negative. I Tested Positive: HIV and Your Pregnancy
[PDF, 169K]
Telling Others That I Am HIV-Positive
[PDF, 145K]
I am Pregnant and HIV-Positive: What Can I Do to Prevent my Baby from Getting Infected with HIV? AZT or Nevirapine During Pregnancy
[PDF, 355K]
I am HIV-Positive, Should I Breast-Feed my Baby? I am HIV-Positive, Should I Bottle-Feed my Baby?
[PDF, 846K]
HIV Treatment
[PDF, 1.4MB]
Treatment Side Effects
[PDF, 1.3MB]
Opportunistic Infections
[PDF, 3.5MB]
Health and Hope in Our Hands: Addressing HIV and AIDS in the Aftermath of Rape and Woman Abuse
The AIDS Law Project, 2004. [PDF, 1.0MB]
National Organizations
South African National Department of Health
Links to government departments and policy information.
AIDS Foundation of South Africa
Site provides general information about the epidemic in South Africa. The foundation supports many local community-based HIV/AIDS interventions.
Anglican Church HIV/AIDS Ministries Strategic Planning
Web site outlines plan to tackle stigma, develop leadership, and enhance HIV/AIDS support throughout Africa.
CINDI (Children in Distress Network)
Informal consortium of NGOs based in Pietermaritzburg advocating for children affected by AIDS.
Uses song, dance, poetry and plays, theatre-in-education, forum theatre, and arts workshops to educate South African youth about HIV/AIDS, life skills, and sexuality.
Health Systems Trust
Established in 1992 to support the postapartheid transformation of the South African health system.
See also: Preventing Mother to Child Transmission, a related site containing key South African PMTCT protocols and reports.
Kidzpositive Family Fund
Based in Cape Town: seeks to generate funds for the grassroots support of mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS.
South African Medical Association
Site provides medical practitioners with information, news and advice to improve health care in South Africa.
Sparrow Ministries
An interdenominational organization that provides hospice care for terminally ill, destitute adults and children with AIDS.
Treatment Action Campaign (TAC)
Organization promotes public awareness on the availability, affordability and use of HIV treatments. Also plays a major role in advocating for access to ARVs and highlighting inequities in access to treatment.
Research Institutions
Perinatal HIV Research Unit (PHRU)
An AIDS research center based in South Africa involved in research, training, policy-formation and advocacy concerning HIV-positive people.
International Organizations
Organization provides access to medicines, treatment, and prevention education to strengthen regional medical infrastructure. Site details AIDS Treatment Access Program in select countries.
Catholic Relief Services
This organization encourages HIV/AIDS prevention and supports AIDS orphans.
Community Information, Empowerment, and Transparency Foundation (CIET)
Programs in South Africa include initiatives against sexual violence.
Engender Health
Provides technical assistance, training, and information on reproductive health in areas lacking resources. Site features country fact sheet and related news releases.
Kaiser Family Foundation, Program for Health and Development in South Africa
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)/Doctors Without Borders
An international medical aid network that offers HIV prevention and treatment services. With support from the South African government, MSF works to reduce mother-to-child transmission proto providing antiretroviral treatment to thousands of HIV-infected individuals in the Western Cape.
Pangaea Global AIDS Foundation
Dedicated to battling the impact of HIV at the international level, particularly in developing nations, by integrating medical and prevention efforts.
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) South Africa
USAID South Africa Mission
EQUITY Project: South Africa
POLICY Project: South Africa
HIV/AIDS Web Sites
HIV/AIDS information portal for southern Africa. A module of SA HealthInfo. Official site of South African HIV Vaccine Action Campaign (SA HIVAC).
AIDS Consortium Network
Over 300 organizations and over 200 individuals providing education and advocacy.
AIDS Directory
Compiled by the South African National Department of Health, HIV/AIDS and STD Directorate, and the South African Medical Research Council. Can search for organizations by type, province, contact name, and/or activity.
Red Ribbon
Sponsored by Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, this HIV/AIDS information portal includes sections on children, clinical resources, legal and workplace issues, and living with AIDS.
South Africa Business Coalition on HIV/AIDS
Site aims to demystify HIV/AIDS for business managers by providing information on workplace programs.
Conferences and Events
5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention 2009
Cape Town, South Africa, July 19-22, 2009.
3rd South African AIDS Conference
ICC Durban, South Africa, June 5-8, 2007. Abstracts from 2nd and 1st conferences also available on site.