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Home > Countries & Regions > Sub-Saharan Africa > Kenya
Updated July 2009
HIV/AIDS-Specific Country Profiles
Health and Development Profiles
Guidelines and Best Practices
Surveys and Assessments
Policy Reports and Papers
Journal Articles
Research Summaries
Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
Online Books and Chapters
Provider Education and Training
Clinician Support Tools
Program Management Materials
National Organizations
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International Organizations
HIV/AIDS Web Sites
Other Information Sources
Comprehensive Indicator Report
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HIV/AIDS in Kenya
Population, 201344,200,000
People living with HIV/AIDS, 20121,600,000
Women (aged 15+) with HIV/AIDS, 2012820,000
Children with HIV/AIDS, 2012200,000
Adult HIV prevalence (%), 20126.1
AIDS deaths, 201257,000
nd = No data
Source: Population Reference Bureau & UNAIDS
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HIV/AIDS-Specific Country Profiles
PEPFAR Country Profile
A summary of the activities of the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) in selected countries.
UNAIDS Country Profile
A brief summary of national socioeconomic conditions in the context of the HIV epidemic, and information (where available) on UNAIDS' country-level activities.
UNGASS 2008 Country Progress Report
Reports progress made in implementing the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. The report includes summary indicator data through the end of 2007. [PDF, 563K]
UNAIDS/WHO Epidemiological Fact Sheet
Statistics on the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections, and discussion of knowledge and behaviors related to HIV transmission. 2008. [PDF, 888K]
Global Fund Country Programs
Discussion of the national epidemic and description of HIV/AIDS projects supported by the Global Fund, including funding details, planned activities, and expected results.
IRIN Country Profile
Contact information for national HIV/AIDS organizations, selected indicators, antiretroviral treatment statistics, and an epidemiological fact sheet from the United Nation's Integrated Regional Information Networks.
WHO HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up Summary Country Profile
A summary of current antiretroviral therapy coverage and resource requirements for scaling up treatment in countries receiving support under the WHO's "3 by 5" treatment initiative. 2005. [PDF, 358K]
Health and Development Profiles
CIA World Factbook
Extensive data over a range of fields, including geography, population, government, the economy, the military, and communications.
Population Reference Bureau Country Profile
Key demographic, health, and development indicators, selected reports and articles, and links.
UNICEF Country Tables
Statistics in the areas of population, mortality, general and reproductive health, and education.
WHO Country Profile
Links to tables containing general health indicators, country profiles on specific diseases, and selected health-related documents. Also in Spanish and French.
Guidelines and Best Practices
HIV/AIDS Decentralization Guidelines
National AIDS and STI Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Kenya, May 2009. [PDF, 1.19MB]
Guidelines for HIV Testing and Counselling in Kenya
National AIDS and STI Control Programme, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Kenya, 2008. [PDF, 1.77MB]
An Implementation Framework for Home- and Community-Based Care in Kenya
National AIDS and STI Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Kenya, January 2008. [PDF, 2.46MB]
Kenyan National Guidelines on Nutrition and HIV/AIDS
National AIDS/STD Control Programme, Kenya Ministry of Health, April 2006.
Guidelines for HIV Testing in Clinical Settings
National AIDS and STI Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Kenya, 2006. [PDF, 1.21MB]
Guidelines for Antiretroviral Drug Therapy in Kenya - Third Edition
National AIDS/STD Control Programme, Kenya Ministry of Health, December 2005.
National HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Framework
National AIDS Control Council, Kenya Ministry of Health, July 2005. [PDF, 355K]
Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Blood and Blood Products: Second Edition
Kenya National Blood Transfusion Service, Family Health International, April 2004.
National Home-Based Care Programme and Service Guidelines
National AIDS/STD Control Programme, Kenya Ministry of Health, May 2002. [PDF, 960K]
Surveys and Assessments
Concurrent Sexual Partnerships and HIV Infection: Evidence from National Population-Based Surveys
Mishra V and Bignami-Van Assche S. Demographic and Health Surveys, UNAIDS, March 2009. [PDF, 576K]
Assessment of Kenyan Sexual Networks: Collecting Evidence for Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk in Garissa, North Eastern Province, and Eastleigh, Nairobi
Macintyre K, Eymoy H, Hassan I, et al. Pathfinder International. February 2009. [PDF, 362K]
TB and HIV/AIDS Integration in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Eritrea
Jan van den Hombergh, Kitty Lambregts-van Weezenbeek, AIDS Campaign Team for Africa (ACT Africa), World Bank, 2008. [PDF, 1.2MB]
APHIA II Baseline Behavioral Monitoring Survey Report Kenya
A behavioral survey of the Rift Valley and Coast Provinces. Family Health International (FHI), Simon-Pierre Tegang, Gideon Emukule, Boniface Kitungulu. June-November 2007. [PDF, 1.7MB]
Spatial Modeling of HIV Prevalence in Kenya
Montana L, Neuman M, Mishra V. DHS, Macro International Inc., January 2007. [PDF, 283K]
An Assessment of Services for Adolescents in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Programs
Family Health International, USAID, October 2006. [PDF, 391K]
Youth in Kenya: Health and HIV
Based on further analysis of the 2003 Kenya DHS. Measure DHS, Macro International Inc., August 2006. [PDF, 3.8MB]
Sentinel Surveillance of HIV & STDs in Kenya
CDC, National AIDS and STD Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Kenya, 2006. [PDF, 367K]
Educational and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya
Vinod Mishra, Fred Arnold, Fredrick Otieno, Anne Cross, Rathavuth Hong. Demographic and Health Research, ORC Macro, Central Bureau of Statistics, Nairobi, USAID, August 2005. [PDF, 331K]
Preparedness for HIV/AIDS Service Delivery: The 2005 Kenya Health Worker Survey
National AIDS and STD Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Kenya, 2006. [PDF, 2.06MB]
Kenya 2004 HIV/AIDS Service Provision Assessment Survey
Muga R, Ndavi P, Kizito P, et al. National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development, Ministry of Health, Central Bureau of Statistics, ORC Macro. November, 2005.
Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2003
Central Bureau of Statistics, Kenya Ministry of Health, July 2004. [PDF, 2.65MB]
Policy Reports and Papers
Transactional Sex as a Response to Risk in Western Kenya
Jonathan Robinson, Ethan Yeh, World Bank Knowledge Strategy Group, March 2009. [PDF, 258K].
Policy and Practical Implication in Delivery of Medico-Legal Services to Survivors of Sexual Violence in Kenya
Liverpool VCT, Care & Treatment, Population Council, SIDA. 2009. [PDF, 1.4MB].
Kenya HIV Prevention Response and Modes of Transmission Analysis
Kenya National AIDS Control Council, World Bank Global HIV/AIDS Program, UNAIDS, March 2009. [PDF, 2.21MB]
Female-initiated prevention: integrating female condoms into HIV risk-reduction activities in Kenya
Liverpool VCT, Care, and Treatment, Population Council, March 2009. [PDF, 702K]
Rapid Assessment on Policy and Operational Barriers to the Integration of FP/RH/HIV Services in Kenya
Okundi B, Aloo-Obunga C, Sanders R. Health Policy Initiative, Futures Group International, February 2009. [PDF, 301K]
Linking Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS, Gateways to Integration: A case study from Kenya
World Health Organization (WHO), UNAIDS, July 2008. [PDF, 404K]
Rapid Analysis of HIV Epidemiological and Response Data on Vulnerable Populations in the Great Lakes Region of Africa
Great Lakes Initiative on AIDS (GLIA), Global HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Team (GAMET), Global HIV/AIDS Program, World Bank, January 2008. [PDF, 3.23MB]
Food on the Table: The Role of Livelihood Strategies in Maintaining Nutritional Status among ART Patients in Kenya and Zambia
Samuels F, Rutenberg N, Simbaya J, et al. Horizons, Population Council, 2008. [PDF, 664K]
Feasibility, Acceptability, Effect and Cost of Integrating Counseling and Testing for HIV within Family Planning Services in Kenya
Liambila W, Askew I, Ayisi R, et al. Frontiers in Reproductive Health, Population Council, 2008. [PDF, 977K]
National HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Framework
Kenya National AIDS Control Council, July 2007. [PDF, 355K]
Report Card on HIV Prevention for Girls and Young Women
United Nations Population Fund and the International Planned Parenthood Federation, 2007. [PDF, 323K]
Ensuring Justice for Vulnerable Communities in Kenya - A Review of HIV and AIDS-Related Legal Services
Kristin Kalla, Jonathan Cohen, Open Society Institute, 2007. [PDF, 1.5MB]
Violence against Women and Girls in the Era of HIV and AIDS: A Situation and Response Analysis in Kenya
UNAIDS and The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, 2006. [PDF, 945K]. See the related directory: Organisations Working in Kenya to Address HIV and AIDS in Women .
Delivering Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Constrained Settings: Lessons from Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda
Robert Ritzenthaler. Family Health International, August 2005.
Journal Articles
Task shifting of antiretroviral delivery from health care workers to persons living with HIV/AIDS: clinical outcomes of a community-based program in Kenya.
Selke HM, Kimaiyo S, Sidle JE, Vedanthan R, Tierney WM, Shen C, Denski CD, Katschke AR, Wools-Kaloustian K. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Dec 1;55(4):483-90. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Feasibility and effectiveness of integrating provider-initiated testing and counselling within family planning services in Kenya
Liambila W, Askew I, Mwangi J, et al. AIDS. 2009 Nov;23 Suppl 1:S115-21. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Knowledge of HIV status, sexual risk behaviors and contraceptive need among people living with HIV in Kenya and Malawi
Anand A, Shiraishi RW, Bunnell RE, et al. AIDS. 2009 Jun 17. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
The clinical burden of tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in western Kenya and the impact of combination antiretroviral treatment
Braitstein P, Nyandiko W, Vreeman R, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 May 15. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Association of attitudes and beliefs towards antiretroviral therapy with HIV-seroprevalence in the general population of Kisumu, Kenya
Cohen C, Montandon M, Carrico A, Shiboski S, et al. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(3):e4573. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
The impact of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on expansion of HIV care services for adult patients in western Kenya
Wools-Kaloustian K, Kimaiyo S, Musick B, et al. AIDS. 2009;23:195-201. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Risk compensation is not associated with male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: A multi-faceted assessment of men enrolled in a randomized controlled trial
Mattson CL, Campbell RT, Bailey RC, et al. PLoS ONE. 2008;3(6). Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Male circumcision for HIV prevention: a prospective study of complications in clinical and traditional settings in Bungoma, Kenya
Bailey RC, Egesah O, Rosenberg S. Bull World Health Org. 2008;86:669-77. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Short- and long-term efficacy of modified directly observed antiretroviral treatment Mombasa, Kenya: A randomized trial
Sarna A, Luchters S, Giebel S, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:611-19. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for TB patients and suspects in Nairobi, Kenya
Odhiambo J, Kizito W, Njoroge A, et al. Int J Tubercul Lung Dis. 2008 Mar;12(Supp 1):S63-68. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Research Summaries
Understanding the HIV/STI Risks and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Nairobi, Kenya
Onyango-Ouma W, Birungi H, Geibel S. Population Council. September 2005. [PDF, 312K]
Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
The Overlooked Epidemic: Addressing HIV Prevention and Treatment among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Sub-Saharan Africa
Consultation report, Nairobi, Kenya, May 14-15, 2008. Kenya National AIDS Control Council, Population Council, 2009. [PDF, 1.76MB]
Preliminary Analysis of Recent HIV Infection in Kenya, KAIS 2007
Tom Oluoch, KAIS Technical Working Group, CDC Kenya, March 2009. [PPT, 2.3MB]
Online Books and Chapters
AIDS in Kenya: Trends, Interventions and Impact
Seventh Edition. National AIDS and STI Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Kenya. 2005. [PDF, 590K]
The Impact of a Growing HIV/AIDS Epidemic on the Kenyan Children
Boniface O.K'Oyugi and Jane Muita, in: "AIDS, Public Policy, and Child Well-Being" (Chapter 3), UNICEF, June 2002. [PDF, 81K]
Provider Education and Training
HIV/AIDS Clinical Case Studies - 101 Cases for Training Clinical Staff
Nazareth Hospital, Kenya, 2006. [PDF, 667K]
Kenya PMTCT National Training Curriculum
An adaptation of the WHO/CDC Generic Training Package on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV for national use in Kenya. Ministry of Health, Kenya, February 2005.
Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults: A Guide for Trainers
Horizons/Population Council, International Centre for Reproductive Health and Coast Province General Hospital, Mombasa-Kenya, 2004. [PDF, 1MB]
Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMCT) Training Curriculum
Kenya PMCT Project, Horizons/Population Council, UNICEF, and the Regional AIDS Training Network, 2002. Manual for a 10-day training for health providers.
Clinician Support Tools
National Manual for the Management of HIV-related Opportunistic Infections and Conditions: A Healtcare Workers' Manual
Ministry of Health, Kenya, 2008. [PDF, 3.38MB]
Nutrition and HIV/AIDS: A Tool Kit for Service Providers in Comprehensive Care Centres
National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP), Kenya Ministry of Health, Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA), USAID, May 2007. [PDF, 3.37]
Healthy Living: A Counseling Guide for Health Workers on Opportunistic Infections, Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), and Management of ART Side Effects
A collection of low-literacy guides and brochures covering ART and opportunistic infections, with some available in Swahili. Family Health International, n.d. [PDF]
Program Management Materials
Nutrition, Food Security and HIV: A Compendium of Promising Practices
Castleman T, Mwadime R. Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care, Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) Project, October 2008. [PDF, 300K]
Management of Research Protocols
Opondo F. Kenya National Aids Control Council, September 2007. [PDF, 88K]
Quantification Workbook for GOK NASCOP ARVs
Coast Province General Hospital, Mombasa-Kenya, Ministry of Health, March 30, 2005. [PDF, 130K]
National Organizations
Ministry of Health, Kenya
National AIDS Control Council, Kenya
National AIDS/STD Control Programme (NASCOP), Kenya
Hope for African Children Initiative
Community-based effort for children orphaned by AIDS or whose parents are ill or dying of AIDS-related causes.
International Organizations
Eastern African National Network of AIDS Service Organisations (EANNASO)
Regional umbrella network of HIV and AIDS service organisations covering 14 countries in Eastern Africa focused on strengthening network capacities and improving national responses to HIV/AIDS.
Organization provides access to medicines, treatment, and prevention education to strengthen regional medical infrastructure. Site details AIDS Treatment Access Program in select countries.
Engender Health
Provides technical assistance, training, and information on reproductive health in areas lacking resources. Site features country fact sheet and related news releases.
Family Care International
Organization promotes women's reproductive health and rights through country-specific safe motherhood programs and adolescent sexual health programs.
Family Health International (FHI)
FHI develops behavioral and clinical HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, and publishes related studies.
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)/Doctors Without Borders
As part of the coalition for Access to Essential Medicines, MSF promotes the distribution of drugs, administers treatment and counseling services. MSF offers antiretroviral treatment to hundreds of HIV-infected patients at the Homa Bay Hospital in Nyanza.
Nyumbani Village International
A self-sustaining community to assist elders and children left homeless by the AIDS pandemic.
Population Communications International (PCI)
PCI produces culturally-sensitive radio and television soap operas, which promote sexual health, HIV/AIDS prevention, and gender equality.
USAID Global Health Kenya
USAID is working to increase health sector resources to confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Site links to 2002 program report, HIV/AIDS fact sheet, project profiles, and a directory of HIV/AIDS associations.
HIV/AIDS Web Sites
Movement of Men Against AIDS in Kenya
A nongovernmental organization with web-based resources supporting men infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in Kenya.
This web site features weekly broadcasts from Kimasomaso, a Swahili radio series which explores sexual and reproductive health issues with and by young people.
Other Information Sources
Training and Education in Pediatric HIV/AIDS Care (KEN-PED-HIV)
The KEN-PED-HIV discussion group aims to support the training and education of clinicians in pediatric HIV care. Participants can discuss, share, and exchange ideas on the treatment and care of children with HIV/AIDS.