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Ethical Dimensions of HIV/AIDS: Related Resources
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The Ethical Recruitment of Internationally Educated Health Professionals: Lessons from Abroad and Options for Canada
Canadian Policy Research Networks, January 2007.
Related Knowledge Base Chapters
Human Rights and HIV/AIDS
Sofia Gruskin, Daniel Tarantola, April 2002.
Journal Articles
Enrolling Women into HIV Preventive Vaccine Trials: An Ethical Imperative but a Logistical Challenge
Mills E, Nixon S, Singh S, Dolma S, Nayyar A, Kapoor S. PLoS Biol. 2006 Feb 21;3(3):e94.
Desperately seeking targets: the ethics of routine HIV testing in low-income countries
Rennie S, Behets F. Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Jan;84(1):52-7.
Free Antiretrovirals Must Not Be Restricted Only to Treatment-Naive Patients
Colebunders R, Kamya M, Semitala F, Castelnuovo B, Katabira E, McAdam K. PLoS Med. 2005 Sep 13;2(10):e276.
Approaches to rationing antiretroviral treatment: ethical and equity implications
Bennett S, Chanfreau C. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Jul;83(7):541-7.
HIV sexual risk behavior over 36 months of follow-up in the world's first HIV vaccine efficacy trial
Bartholow BN, Buchbinder S, Celum C, Goli V, Koblin B, Para M, Marmor M, Novak RM, Mayer K, Creticos C, Orozco-Cronin P, Popovic V, Mastro TD, VISION/VAX004 Study Team. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005 May 1;39(1):90-101.
bullet.gifCommentary by Contributing Editor Arthur Ammann, MD.
In vitro and in vivo: the story of nonoxynol 9
Hillier SL, Moench T, Shattock R, Black R, Reichelderfer P, Veronese F. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005 May 1;39(1):1-8.
bullet.gifCommentary by Contributing Editor Arthur Ammann, MD.
Guidelines and Best Practices
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 45: Public Welfare, Part 46: Protection of Human Subjects
Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks, June 23, 2005.
Ethical Considerations in HIV Preventive Vaccine Research
UNAIDS, April 2004. [PDF, 900K] Also in French, Spanish, and Russian.
Guidance on Ethics and Equitable Access to HIV Treatment and Care
WHO, 2004. [PDF, 482K] Also in French.
International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), November 2002.
The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research
The (U.S.) National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, April 18, 1979.
Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects
World Medical Association, June 1964 (periodically amended).
Nuremberg Code: Directives for Human Experimentation
U.S. Government Printing Office, Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Vol. 2., 1949.
Policy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
The Ethical Recruitment of Internationally Educated Health Professionals: Lessons from Abroad and Options for Canada
Canadian Policy Research Networks, January 2007.
Building Collaboration to Advance HIV Prevention: Global Consultation on Tenofovir Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Research
Report of a consultation convened by the International Aids Society on behalf of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, NIH, and CDC, September 2005. [PDF, 197K]
Rethinking the Ethical Roadmap for Clinical Testing of Microbicides: Report on an International Consultation
Global Campaign for Microbicides, March 2005.
Ethical Considerations Arising from Vaccine Trials Conducted in Paediatric Populations with High Disease Burden in Developing Countries
WHO, November 2004. [PDF, 415K]
Ethical Issues to Be Considered in Second Generation Surveillance
WHO, UNAIDS, April 28, 2004. [PDF, 193K]
Ensuring Equitable Access to Antiretroviral Treatment for Women
WHO, UNAIDS, 2004. [PDF, 162K]
The Ethics of Research Related to Healthcare in Developing Countries
Nuffield Council on Bioethics, April 24, 2002. Available in English, French, and Spanish.
Ethical Issues in Data Collection for HIV Programming and Evaluation
Family Health International, n.d.
Conference Reports and Proceedings
Informed Consent in HIV Prevention Trials: Report of an International Workshop
C. Elizabeth McGrory, Barbara A. Friedland, Cynthia Woodsong, Kathleen M. MacQueen. Population Council, Family Health International, 2006. [PDF, 711K]
Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
Dilemmas and Challenges When the North Conducts Research in the South
Alexander Morgan Capron, WHO Department of Ethics, Trade, Human Rights and Health Law. Yale Interdisciplinary Bioethics Project, New Haven, CT, October 13, 2004. [PDF, 429K]
Ethical Challenges in Clinical Testing of Microbicides: On-Going Discussion and Debate
Lori Heise. Microbicides 2004, March 2004. [PowerPoint, 917K]
Principles and Practices: The Implementation of Ethical Guidelines for Research on HIV
WHO, June 2-3, 2003.
Online Books and Chapters
Crime and Punishment: Is There a Role for Criminal Law in HIV Prevention Policy?
Leslie E. Wolf, Richard Vezina. Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Program in Medical Ethics, University of California San Francisco, April 2004. [PDF, 370K]
Provider Education and Training
Research Ethics Training Curriculum
Roberto Rivera, David Borasky, Robert Rice, Florence Carayon. Family Health International, n.d. Online training available in English, French, and Spanish.
American College of Physicians Center For Ethics & Professionalism
Documents and resources related to end-of-life care, managed care ethics, and professionalism.
American Medical Association
bullet.gifCouncil on Ethical and Judicial Affairs
bullet.gifInstitute for Ethics
bullet.gifVirtual Mentor
Discussion forum.
American Society for Bioethics and Humanities
Consolidation of the Society for Health and Human Values, Society for Bioethics Consultation, and American Association of Bioethics.
American Society of Law, Medicine and Ethics
Publishes The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics and The American Journal of Law & Medicine. Web site offers news, audio programs, and conference information.
Association for Practical and Professional Ethics
Based at Indiana University. Produces several publications, including case studies.
Online edition of The American Journal of Bioethics. Daily news; special features; conference information; and "Bioethics for Beginners" section with extensive, well-organized links. Produced by the University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioethics and MIT Press.
Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
Includes material on testing and confidentiality, prisons, injection drug use, discrimination, and immigration. In English and French.
European Network for Biomedical Ethics
Based at University of Tübingen, Germany; publishes Biomedical Ethics.
François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights
Works to develop domestic and international policy focusing on the relationship between health and human rights in a global perspective.
French National Consultative Ethics Committee for Health and Life Sciences
In French and English.
Georgetown University National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature
Books, journals, newspaper articles, legal materials, regulations, codes, and government publications. Links to databases and teaching materials.
Georgetown University Kennedy Institute of Ethics
The world’s oldest and most comprehensive academic bioethics center. Research covering protection of research subjects, reproductive and feminist bioethics, end of life care, health care justice, intellectual disability, cloning, gene therapy, eugenics, and other major issues in bioethics.
Global Forum on Bioethics in Research
An informal partnership established by a number of organizations with a shared interest in the ethics of conducting research involving human beings in developing countries.
Harvard School of Public Health Program on Ethical Issues in International Health Research
Website includes case studies and links related to principles of research ethics, informed consent, responsibility to the study community, mechanisms of approval, and the role of funders. Also see Harvard University Edmond J. Safra Foundation Center for Ethics.
Hastings Center
Independent, nonpartisan, interdisciplinary research institute based in New York State. Research covers medicine and biomedical research; values and biotechnology; and health policy and health care systems.
Iowa State University Bioethics Program
Johns Hopkins University Bioethics Institute
Research includes medical privacy and international research ethics; many related publications, legislative material, and links provided for each research topic.
Karolinska Institute Library: Bioethics Resources
Based in Sweden, includes links to articles and case studies.
Medical College of Wisconsin Center for the Study of Bioethics
Includes distance learning and abstract service.
Monash University Centre for Human Bioethics
Based in Australia; publishes Monash Bioethics Review.
National Human Genome Research Institute: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Human Genetics Research
Established to anticipate and address the ethical, legal, and social issues that arise as the result of human genetic research.
National Institutes of Health: Bioethics Resources on the Web
Sponsored by the U.S. NIH Office of Extramural Research and the NIH Inter-Institute Bioethics Interest Group. Provides information about bioethics initiatives at NIH institutes and centers, other federal agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. Topics include research (domestic and international), biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, culture and ethnicity, end of life, palliative care, health insurance and managed care, and physician-patient relationship.
Nuffield Council on Bioethics
Based in U.K. and funded by the Nuffield Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and Medical Research Council. Reports and discussion papers; topics include ethics of healthcare-related research in developing countries.
Office for Human Research Protections
Part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
President's Council on Bioethics
U.S. presidential advisory council on bioethical issues in science and technology.
Stanford University Center for Biomedical Ethics
University of British Columbia Center for Applied Ethics
Online discussions and courses and extensive links related to biomedical and health care ethics.
University of Buffalo Center for Clinical Ethics and Humanities in Health Care
News, online library, and an ethics core curriculum; featured topics include research, medical humanities, hospice and palliative care, advance directives, confidentiality and medical record privacy, genetics, and law.
University of California San Francisco Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Policy and Ethics Core
The purpose of the Policy and Ethics Core is to assure that HIV prevention and policy research at Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) meets the highest ethical standards, addresses pressing policy questions, and has a high impact on the policy-making process.
University of Chicago MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics
Online newsletter and guide to biomedical ethics resources.
University of Michigan
Ethics links and courses.
University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioethics
Houses editorial offices of American Journal of Bioethics. Links to Penn Medical School's virtual curriculum, which includes CMEs and grand rounds.
University of Pittsburgh Center for Bioethics and Health Law
Extensive, well-annotated links.
University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics
University of Tsukuba Eubios Ethics Institute
Based in Japan; publishes Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics. Materials in Japanese and English.
University of the Witwatersrand
HIV/AIDS: Ethical, Legal & Social Issues--Bioethics for the Developing World.
WHO: Ethical Standards and Procedures for Research with Human Beings
A collection of guidance documents and background material. See also the WHO Department of Health and Human Rights.