| Related Knowledge Base Chapters|
| Journal Articles|
|Enrolling Women into HIV Preventive Vaccine Trials: An Ethical Imperative but a Logistical Challenge|
Mills E, Nixon S, Singh S, Dolma S, Nayyar A, Kapoor S. PLoS Biol. 2006 Feb 21;3(3):e94.
|Desperately seeking targets: the ethics of routine HIV testing in low-income countries|
Rennie S, Behets F. Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Jan;84(1):52-7.
|Free Antiretrovirals Must Not Be Restricted Only to Treatment-Naive Patients|
Colebunders R, Kamya M, Semitala F, Castelnuovo B, Katabira E, McAdam K. PLoS Med. 2005 Sep 13;2(10):e276.
|Approaches to rationing antiretroviral treatment: ethical and equity implications|
Bennett S, Chanfreau C. Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Jul;83(7):541-7.
|HIV sexual risk behavior over 36 months of follow-up in the world's first HIV vaccine efficacy trial|
Bartholow BN, Buchbinder S, Celum C, Goli V, Koblin B, Para M, Marmor M, Novak RM, Mayer K, Creticos C, Orozco-Cronin P, Popovic V, Mastro TD, VISION/VAX004 Study Team. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005 May 1;39(1):90-101.
|Commentary by Contributing Editor Arthur Ammann, MD.
|In vitro and in vivo: the story of nonoxynol 9|
Hillier SL, Moench T, Shattock R, Black R, Reichelderfer P, Veronese F. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005 May 1;39(1):1-8.
|Commentary by Contributing Editor Arthur Ammann, MD.
| Guidelines and Best Practices|
|Code of Federal Regulations, Title 45: Public Welfare, Part 46: Protection of Human Subjects|
Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Office for Protection from Research Risks, June 23, 2005.
|Ethical Considerations in HIV Preventive Vaccine Research|
UNAIDS, April 2004. [PDF, 900K] Also in French, Spanish, and Russian.
|Guidance on Ethics and Equitable Access to HIV Treatment and Care|
WHO, 2004. [PDF, 482K] Also in French.
|International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects|
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), November 2002.
|The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research|
The (U.S.) National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, April 18, 1979.
|Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects|
World Medical Association, June 1964 (periodically amended).
|Nuremberg Code: Directives for Human Experimentation |
U.S. Government Printing Office, Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Vol. 2., 1949.
| Policy Reports, Papers, and Briefs|
|The Ethical Recruitment of Internationally Educated Health Professionals: Lessons from Abroad and Options for Canada |
Canadian Policy Research Networks, January 2007.
|Building Collaboration to Advance HIV Prevention: Global Consultation on Tenofovir Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Research|
Report of a consultation convened by the International Aids Society on behalf of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, NIH, and CDC, September 2005. [PDF, 197K]
|Rethinking the Ethical Roadmap for Clinical Testing of Microbicides: Report on an International Consultation|
Global Campaign for Microbicides, March 2005.
|Ethical Considerations Arising from Vaccine Trials Conducted in Paediatric Populations with High Disease Burden in Developing Countries|
WHO, November 2004. [PDF, 415K]
|Ethical Issues to Be Considered in Second Generation Surveillance|
WHO, UNAIDS, April 28, 2004. [PDF, 193K]
|Ensuring Equitable Access to Antiretroviral Treatment for Women|
WHO, UNAIDS, 2004. [PDF, 162K]
|The Ethics of Research Related to Healthcare in Developing Countries|
Nuffield Council on Bioethics, April 24, 2002. Available in English, French, and Spanish.
|Ethical Issues in Data Collection for HIV Programming and Evaluation|
Family Health International, n.d.
| Conference Reports and Proceedings|
| Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions|
|Dilemmas and Challenges When the North Conducts Research in the South|
Alexander Morgan Capron, WHO Department of Ethics, Trade, Human Rights and Health Law. Yale Interdisciplinary Bioethics Project, New Haven, CT, October 13, 2004. [PDF, 429K]
|Ethical Challenges in Clinical Testing of Microbicides: On-Going Discussion and Debate|
Lori Heise. Microbicides 2004, March 2004. [PowerPoint, 917K]
|Principles and Practices: The Implementation of Ethical Guidelines for Research on HIV|
WHO, June 2-3, 2003.
| Online Books and Chapters|
| Provider Education and Training|
|Research Ethics Training Curriculum|
Roberto Rivera, David Borasky, Robert Rice, Florence Carayon. Family Health International, n.d. Online training available in English, French, and Spanish.
|American College of Physicians Center For Ethics & Professionalism|
Documents and resources related to end-of-life care, managed care ethics, and professionalism.
|American Medical Association|
|American Society for Bioethics and Humanities|
Consolidation of the Society for Health and Human Values, Society for Bioethics Consultation, and American Association of Bioethics.
|American Society of Law, Medicine and Ethics|
Publishes The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics and The American Journal of Law & Medicine. Web site offers news, audio programs, and conference information.
|Association for Practical and Professional Ethics|
Based at Indiana University. Produces several publications, including case studies.
Online edition of The American Journal of Bioethics. Daily news; special features; conference information; and "Bioethics for Beginners" section with extensive, well-organized links. Produced by the University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioethics and MIT Press.
|Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network|
Includes material on testing and confidentiality, prisons, injection drug use, discrimination, and immigration. In English and French.
|European Network for Biomedical Ethics|
Based at University of Tübingen, Germany; publishes Biomedical Ethics.
|François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights |
Works to develop domestic and international policy focusing on the relationship between health and human rights in a global perspective.
|French National Consultative Ethics Committee for Health and Life Sciences|
In French and English.
|Georgetown University National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature|
Books, journals, newspaper articles, legal materials, regulations, codes, and government publications. Links to databases and teaching materials.
|Georgetown University Kennedy Institute of Ethics|
The world’s oldest and most comprehensive academic bioethics center. Research covering protection of research subjects, reproductive and feminist bioethics, end of life care, health care justice, intellectual disability, cloning, gene therapy, eugenics, and other major issues in bioethics.
|Global Forum on Bioethics in Research|
An informal partnership established by a number of organizations with a shared interest in the ethics of conducting research involving human beings in developing countries.
|Harvard School of Public Health Program on Ethical Issues in International Health Research|
Website includes case studies and links related to principles of research ethics, informed consent, responsibility to the study community, mechanisms of approval, and the role of funders. Also see Harvard University Edmond J. Safra Foundation Center for Ethics.
Independent, nonpartisan, interdisciplinary research institute based in New York State. Research covers medicine and biomedical research; values and biotechnology; and health policy and health care systems.
|Iowa State University Bioethics Program|
|Johns Hopkins University Bioethics Institute|
Research includes medical privacy and international research ethics; many related publications, legislative material, and links provided for each research topic.
|Karolinska Institute Library: Bioethics Resources|
Based in Sweden, includes links to articles and case studies.
|Medical College of Wisconsin Center for the Study of Bioethics|
Includes distance learning and abstract service.
|Monash University Centre for Human Bioethics|
Based in Australia; publishes Monash Bioethics Review.
|National Human Genome Research Institute: Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Human Genetics Research|
Established to anticipate and address the ethical, legal, and social issues that arise as the result of human genetic research.
|National Institutes of Health: Bioethics Resources on the Web|
Sponsored by the U.S. NIH Office of Extramural Research and the NIH Inter-Institute Bioethics Interest Group. Provides information about bioethics initiatives at NIH institutes and centers, other federal agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. Topics include research (domestic and international), biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, culture and ethnicity, end of life, palliative care, health insurance and managed care, and physician-patient relationship.
|Nuffield Council on Bioethics|
Based in U.K. and funded by the Nuffield Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and Medical Research Council. Reports and discussion papers; topics include ethics of healthcare-related research in developing countries.
|Office for Human Research Protections|
Part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
|President's Council on Bioethics|
U.S. presidential advisory council on bioethical issues in science and technology.
|Stanford University Center for Biomedical Ethics|
|University of British Columbia Center for Applied Ethics|
Online discussions and courses and extensive links related to biomedical and health care ethics.
|University of Buffalo Center for Clinical Ethics and Humanities in Health Care|
News, online library, and an ethics core curriculum; featured topics include research, medical humanities, hospice and palliative care, advance directives, confidentiality and medical record privacy, genetics, and law.
|University of California San Francisco Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Policy and Ethics Core|
The purpose of the Policy and Ethics Core is to assure that HIV prevention and policy research at Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) meets the highest ethical standards, addresses pressing policy questions, and has a high impact on the policy-making process.
|University of Chicago MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics|
Online newsletter and guide to biomedical ethics resources.
|University of Michigan|
Ethics links and courses.
|University of Pennsylvania Center for Bioethics|
Houses editorial offices of American Journal of Bioethics. Links to Penn Medical School's virtual curriculum, which includes CMEs and grand rounds.
|University of Pittsburgh Center for Bioethics and Health Law|
Extensive, well-annotated links.
|University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics|
|University of Tsukuba Eubios Ethics Institute|
Based in Japan; publishes Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics. Materials in Japanese and English.
|University of the Witwatersrand |
HIV/AIDS: Ethical, Legal & Social Issues--Bioethics for the Developing World.
|WHO: Ethical Standards and Procedures for Research with Human Beings|
A collection of guidance documents and background material. See also the WHO Department of Health and Human Rights.