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Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT): Related Resources
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Related Knowledge Base Chapters
Primary Care of Infants and Children with HIV: Related Resources
Counseling and Testing for HIV: Related Resources
Journal Articles
Twelve-month follow-up of six week extended dose nevirapine randomized controlled trials: differential impact of extended-dose nevirapine on mother-to-child transmission and infant death by maternal CD4 cell count
Omer SB. Six Week Extended Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) Study Team. AIDS. 2011 Mar 27;25(6):767-76. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Maternal HIV infection and antibody responses against vaccine-preventable diseases in uninfected infants
Jones CE, Naidoo S, De Beer C, Esser M, Kampmann B, Hesseling AC. JAMA. 2011 305:6, 576-84. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
The impact of maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy and short-course combination antiretrovirals for prevention of mother-to-child transmission on early infant infection Rates at the Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, January 2007 to May 2009
Namukwaya Z, Mudiope P, Kekitiinwa A, Musoke P, Matovu J, Kayma S, Salmond W, Bitarakwate E, Mubiru M, Maganda A, Galla M, Byamugisha J, Fowler MG. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011; 56: Number, 69-75. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Increased Risk of Severe Infant Anemia Following Exposure to Maternal HAART, Botswana
Dryden-Peterson S, Shapiro RL, Hughes MD, Powis K, Ogwu A, Moffat C, Moyo S, Makhema J, Essex M, Lockman S. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 January 24. [Epub ahead of print] Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Provision of micronutrient-fortified food from 6 months of age does not permit HIV-exposed uninfected Zambian children to catch up in growth to HIV-unexposed children: a randomized controlled trial
Filteau S, Baisley K, Chisenga M, Kasonka L, Gibson RS; CIGNIS Study Team. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 56(2):166-75. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Triple antiretroviral compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis during pregnancy and breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (Kesho Bora study): a randomised controlled trial
The Kesho Bora Study Group. Lancet Infectious Diseases, Early Online Publication, 14 January 2011. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Male antenatal attendance and HIV testing are associated with decreased infant HIV infection and increased HIV-free survival
Aluisio A, Richardson BA, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Farquhar C. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jan 1;56(1):76-82. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Cost-effectiveness of routine rapid human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing before DNA-PCR testing for early diagnosis of infants in resource-limited settings
Menzies NA, Homsy J, Chang Pitter JY, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Sep;28(9):819-25. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Maternal or infant antiretroviral drugs to reduce HIV-1 transmission
Chasela CS, Hudgens MG, Jamieson DJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 17;362(24):2271-81. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in women previously exposed to a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine: A multi country, prospective cohort study
Stringer JSA, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, et al. PLoS Med 7(2): 2010 Feb 16;7(2):e1000233. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Addition of extended zidovudine to extended nevirapine prophylaxis reduces nevirapine resistance in infants who were HIV-infected in utero
KLidstrom J, Li Q, Hoover DR, et al. AIDS. 2010 Jan 28;24(3):381-6. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
A randomized trial to determine the optimal dosage of multivitamin supplements to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women in Tanzania
Kawai K, Kupka R, Mugusi F, Aboud S, Okuma J, Villamor E, Spiegelman D, Fawzi WW. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb;91(2):391-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Breastfeeding, mother-to-child HIV transmission, and mortality among infants born to HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda
Homsy J, Moore D, Barasa A. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jan 1;53(1):28-35. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Breastfeeding with maternal antiretroviral therapy or formula feeding to prevent HIV postnatal mother-to-child transmission in Rwanda
Peltier CA, Ndayisaba GF, Lepage P. AIDS. 2009 Aug 28. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Mortality and virologic outcomes after access to antiretroviral therapy among a cohort of HIV-infected women who received single-dose nevirapine in Lusaka, Zambia
Kuhn L, Semrau K, Ramachandran S. Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Sep;52(1):132-6. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Low-cost HIV-1 diagnosis and quantification in dried blood spots by real time PCR
Mehta N, Trzmielina S, Nonyane BA, et al. PLoS ONE. 2009 Jun 5;4(6):e5819. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Primary HIV-1 infection among infants in sub-Saharan Africa: HPTN 024
Read JS, Mwatha A, Richardson B, et al. 2009 Jul 1;51(3):317-22. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Differential effects of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers by severity of maternal disease
Kuhn L, Aldrovandi GM, Sinkala M, et al. Zambia Exclusive Breastfeeding Study (ZEBS). PLoS One. 2009 Jun 26;4(6):e6059. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Short-term antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission is safe and results in a sustained increase in CD4 T-cell counts in HIV-1-infected mothers
Palacios R, Senise JF, Vaz MJR, Diaz RS, Castelo A. HIV Med. 2009;10:157-62. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Risk factors for early and late transmission of HIV via breast-feeding among infants born to HIV-infected women in a randomized clinical trial in Botswana
Shapiro RL, Smeaton L, Lockman S, et al. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1-5. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Interventions for preventing late postnatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Horvath T, Madi BC, Iuppa IM, Kennedy GE, Rutherford G, Read JS. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD006734. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006734.pub2. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with advanced HIV disease and pregnancy outcomes in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire
Ekouevi D, Coffie P, Benaud B, et al. AIDS. 2008;22:1815-20. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Infant feeding, HIV transmission and mortality at 18 months: the need for appropriate choices by mothers and prioritization within programmes
Rollins NC, Becquet R, Bland RM, Coutsoudis A, Coovadia HM, Newell ML. AIDS. 2008;22:2349-2357. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Association of HIV and malaria with mother-to-child transmission, birth outcomes, and child mortality
Brahmbhatt H, Sullivan D, Kigozi G, Askin F, Wabwire-Mangenm F, Serwadda D, et al. J Acqu Immune Defic Syn. 2008 Apr 1;47(4):472-6. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Rapid HIV testing and prevention of perinatal HIV transmission in high-risk maternity hospitals in St. Petersburg, Russia
Kissin DM, Akatova N, Rakhmanova AG, Vinogradova EN, Voronin EE, Jamieson DJ, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Feb;198(2):183.e1-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission: program changes and the effect on uptake of the HIVNET 012 regimen in Malawi
Moses A, Zimba C, Kamanga E, Nkhoma J, Maida A, Martinson F, et al. AIDS 2008 Jan 2;22(1):83-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Antiretroviral treatment and prevention of peripartum and postnatal HIV transmission in West Africa: evaluation of a two-tiered approach
Tonwe-Gold B, Ekouevi DK, Viho I, Amani-Bosse C, Toure S, Coffie PA, et al. PLoS Med 2007 Aug 21;4(8):e257. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Treatment acceleration program and the experience of the DREAM program in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Palombi L, Marazzi MC, Voetberg A, Magid NA. AIDS 2007 Jul;21 Suppl 4:S65-71. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Achievements, Issues, and Challenges: Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in the United States and in Resource-Limited Settings
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2007 Sep;197 (3 Suppl S): S1-S141
Maternal HIV infection and placental malaria reduce transplacental antibody transfer and tetanus antibody levels in newborns in Kenya
Cumberland P, Shulman CE, Maple PA, Bulmer JN, Dorman EK, Kawuondo K, et al. J Infect Dis 2007 Aug 15;196(4):550-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Transmission rates in consecutive pregnancies exposed to single-dose nevirapine in Soweto, South Africa and Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire
Martinson NA, Ekouevi DK, Dabis F, Morris L, Lupodwana P, Tonwe-Gold B, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007 Jun 1;45(2):206-9. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
Response to Antiretroviral Therapy after a Single, Peripartum Dose of Nevirapine
Lockman S, Shapiro R, Smeaton L, Wester C, Thior I, Stevens L, Chand F, Makhema J, Moffat C, Asmelash A, Ndase P, Arimi P, van Widenfelt E, Mazhani L, Novitsky V, Lagakos S, Essex M. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 11;356(2):135-47.
Integrating prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission into routine antenatal care: the key to program expansion in Cameroon.
Welty TK, Bulterys M, Welty ER, Tih PM, Ndikintum G, Nkuoh G, Nkfusai J, Kayita J, Nkengasong JN, Wilfert CM. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Dec 1;40(4):486-93.
Effectiveness of a city-wide program to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia.
Stringer JS, Sinkala M, Maclean CC, Levy J, Kankasa C, Degroot A, Stringer EM, Acosta EP, Goldenberg RL, Vermund SH. AIDS. 2005 Aug 12;19(12):1309-15.
Maternal self-medication and provision of nevirapine to newborns by women in Rakai, Uganda
Kagaayi J, Dreyfuss ML, Kigozi G, Chen MZ, Wabwire-Mangen F, Serwadda D, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo NK, Nalugoda F, Kiwanuka N, Kiddugavu M, Gray RH. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 May 1;39(1):121-4. Includes commentary by Art Ammann, MD.
Evaluating programs to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in two large Bangkok hospitals, 1999-2001
Teeraratkul A, Simonds R, Asavapiriyanont S, Chalermchokcharoenkit A, Vanprapa N, Chotpitayasunondh T, Mock P, Skunodum N, Neeyapun K, Jetsawang B, Culnane M, Tappero J. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Feb 01;38(2):208-12.
Guidelines and Best Practices
Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents -- A Working Group of the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council (OARAC). See also slide sets from the AETC National Resource Center.
Recommendations for Use of Antiretroviral Drugs in Pregnant HIV-1-Infected Women for Maternal Health and Interventions to Reduce Perinatal HIV-1 Transmission in the United States
Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. PDF versions available [1.2MB ]. Training slides on perinatal guidelines are also available.
Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection
Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and National Institutes of Health (NIH). Also available, related slide sets from the AETC National Resource Center.
Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating Pregnant Women and Preventing HIV Infection in Infants in Resource-Limited Settings: Towards Universal Access, Recommendations for a Public Health Approach
World Health Organization, August 7, 2006. [PDF, 2.4MB]
bullet.gifRapid Advice: ARV Treatment for Pregnant Women and Prevention of Infection in Infants
WHO, November 30, 2009. [PDF, 373K]
bullet.gifRapid Advice: HIV and Infant Feeding--Revised Principles and Recommendations
World Health Organization, November 30, 2009. [PDF, 219K]
HIV and Infant Feeding: New Evidence and Programmatic Experience
This document is the final report on a meeting of the Inter-Agency Task Team on prevention of HIV infections in pregnant women, mothers and their children, held in October 2006. World Health Organization, UNICEF, UNFPA, and UNAIDS, 2007. [PDF, 673K]
Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 2006;55(RR14);1-17.
Management of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women
British HIV Association, 2007.
Nutrition Counselling, Care and Support for HIV-Infected Women: Guidelines on HIV-Related Care, Treatment and Support for HIV-Infected Women and their Children in Resource-Constrained Settings
WHO, September 21, 2004. [PDF, 3MB]
Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Testing during Labor and Delivery for Women of Unknown HIV Status: A Practical Guide and Model Protocol
Margaret Lampe, Bernard Branson, Sindy Paul, Carolyn Burr, Elaine Gross, Cynthia Eicher, Robert Maupin, Dawn Averitt, Brian Forsyth, Mary Glenn Fowler. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 30, 2004.
Policy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
A Review of UNICEF Experience with the Distribution of Free Infant Formula for Infants of HIV-Infected Mothers in Africa
Arjan de Wagt, David Clark. Academy for Educational Development, April 14, 2004. [PDF, 405K]
Review of Field Experiences: Integration of Family Planning and PMTCT Services
Naomi Rutenberg, Carolyn Baek. Population Council, April 2004. [PDF, 231K]
Family Planning and the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: A Review of the Literature
Kim Best. Family Health International, April 2004. [PDF, 42K]
Conference Reports and Proceedings
16th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections
Conference coverage includes news, webcasts and abstracts related to PMTCT. Women, Children, and HIV, February 2009.
Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
CROI 2009: Selected PMTCT, Microbicide and Pediatric Presentations
Lynne M. Mofenson, February 23, 2009. [PowerPoint, 5.5MB]
Update on the Science of Prevention of Mother to Child HIV Transmission
Lynne M. Mofenson, January 9, 2009. [PowerPoint, 4.7MB]
Challenges in Pediatric and Adolescent Care
Lynne M. Mofenson, February 2008. [PowerPoint, 9.7MB]
HIV Transmission through Breastfeeding
Lynne M. Mofenson, June 2006. [PowerPoint, 2MB]
Research Summaries
Use of Antiretrovirals to Prevent Transmission of HIV through Breast Milk
Grace John-Stewart, University of Washington, UCSF Center for HIV Information, June 2009.
Vitamin A and the Risk of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
Sahai Burrowes, UCSF Center for HIV Information, November 2006.
Overview of Perinatal Intervention Trials
Lynne M. Mofenson, June 2008.
Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Briefing Notes
World Health Organization, October 1, 2007. [PDF, 192K]
Antiretroviral Treatment, Breast-Feeding, and Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
Sahai Burrowes, Arthur Ammann, UCSF Center for HIV Information, June 2006.
Rates, Barriers, and Outcomes of HIV Serostatus Disclosure among Women in Developing Countries: Implications for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Programmes
Amy Medley, Claudia Garcia-Moreno, Scott McGill, Suzanne Maman, World Health Organization, April 2004. [PDF, 356K]
Review of HIVNET 012 (A Clinical Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Oral AZT and the Efficacy of Oral Nevirapine for the Prevention of Vertical Transmission of HIV-1 Infection in Pregnant Ugandan Women and Their Neonates)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), March 22, 2002.
Online Books and Chapters
Reducing Perinatal HIV Transmission Chapter: Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care
AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center, 2014.
Newsletter Articles
HIV Treatment for Mothers and Children in Botswana: Lessons from a Dynamic Programme
Theo Smart. HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice, Aidsmap, October 20, 2006.
Safer Infant Feeding, Part 2
Theo Smart. HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice, Aidsmap, September 21, 2006.
Safer Infant Feeding, Part 1
Theo Smart. HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice, Aidsmap, September 12, 2006.
Getting the most prevention and care out of programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission
Theo Smart. HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice, Aidsmap, July 14, 2006.
Clinical Care Options discussion on mother-to-child transmission
Theo Smart. HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice, Aidsmap, October 28, 2005.
Provider Education and Training
Botswana Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Training Package
Department of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care, Ministry of Health, Botswana. July 2006.
Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Infection Generic Training Package
World Health Organization, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center, updated in July 2008. Older versions available in French, Russian and Spanish.
Clinician Support Tools
Testing and Counselling for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (TC for PMTCT): Support Tools
CDC Global AIDS Program, WHO, UNICEF, USAID, December 2005.
The Columbia Clinical Manual
Miriam Rabkin, Wafaa El-Sadr, Elaine Abrams. The MTCT-Plus Initiative, International Center for AIDS Programs, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 2005. [PDF, 5.0MB]
Program Management Materials
Guide to Implementation of Services for Early Diagnosis of HIV in Infants in Resource-Limited Settings
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Global AIDS Program, January 2009.
Patient and Community Education
HIV During Pregnancy, Labor and Delivery, and After Birth: Health Information for HIV Positive Pregnant Women
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2008. [PDF, 345K] Also in Spanish. [PDF, 351K]
I Am HIV-Positive, Should I Breast-Feed My Baby? I Am HIV-Positive, Should I Bottle-Feed My Baby?
Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, April 2004. See also the related fact sheets:
bullet.gifAZT or Nevirapine During Pregnancy
bullet.gif I Am Pregnant. Should I Have an HIV Test?
bullet.gif I Tested Positive: HIV and Your Pregnancy
Links
Women, Children, and HIV: Resources for Prevention and Treatment
State-of-the-art clinical information and training resources on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, care of women and children with HIV, and related topics. A collaborative project of the Fran├žois-Xavier Bagnoud Center (FXBC) at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) and the UCSF Center for HIV Information (CHI.)
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
Intended to provide an early signal of any major teratogenic effect associated with a prenatal exposure to the products monitored through the registry, a voluntary prospective, exposure-registration, observational study designed to collect and evaluate data on the outcomes of pregnancy exposures to antiretroviral products.
Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation
Research and programs aimed at preventing and treating pediatric HIV disease.
Global Strategies for HIV Prevention
Nonprofit organization working to implement international strategies to prevent HIV infection and care for those affected by HIV with a focus on women and children.
International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University
(ICAP) The Center's collection of PMTCT-related resources including several tools including some on infant feeding in the context of HIV infection.
International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group
(IMPAACT) IMPAACT evaluates treatments for HIV-infected children, adolescents, and pregnant women; develops new approaches for the interruption of mother-to-infant transmission; and evaluates vaccines for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission among adolescents.
Maternal and Child Health Library
The library's goal is to serve the maternal and child health (MCH) community with accurate, reliable, and timely information and resources. The site contains the MCH Alert newsletter, databases, bibliographies, and other information resources.
Perinatal HIV Research Unit
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa. Part of the University of the Witwatersrand.
PMTCT Donations Program
Axios coordinates the PMTCT Donations Program, Abbott Laboratories and Boehringer Ingelheim's joint response to mother-to-child HIV transmission. Abbott Laboratories donates Determine HIV 1/2 tests to eligible countries for pregnant women, their spouses and children of those women who test HIV-positive. Boehringer Ingelheim donates nevirapine free of charge to eligible countries for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.
Secure the Future
Bristol-Myers Squibb initiative, in partnership with several African nations, to find sustainable and relevant solutions for the management of HIV/AIDS in women and children, and provide resources to improve community education and patient support.
The Well Project: Pregnancy and HIV
Resource on women and HIV providing information on the latest treatments, therapies, and clinical trials, as well as advocacy tools, slide presentations, a forum for discussion groups, and project startup guides.