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Counseling & Testing for HIV: Related Resources
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arrow imageRelated Knowledge Base Chapters
arrow imageJournal Articles
arrow imageGuidelines and Best Practices
arrow imagePolicy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
arrow imagePresentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
arrow imageResearch Summaries
arrow imageOnline Books and Chapters
arrow imageNewsletter Articles
arrow imageProvider Education and Training
arrow imageClinician Support Tools
arrow imageProgram Management Materials
arrow imagePatient and Community Education
arrow imageLinks
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Related Knowledge Base Chapters
decorative spacerTheory and Practice of Client-Centered Counseling and Testing
Nicolas Sheon, PhD, June 2004; reviewed January 2006.
decorative spacerHIV Antibody Assays
Niel Constantine, PhD, May 2006.
Journal Articles
decorative spacerBringing the end in sight: Consensus regarding HIV screening strategies
Das, M and Volberding, P. Ann Intern Med. Published online 30 April 2013.
decorative spacerA comparison of HIV detection rates using routine opt-out provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling versus a standard of care approach in a rural African setting
Silvestri DM, Modjarrad K, Blevins ML, Halale E, Vermund SH, McKinzie JP. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jan 1;56(1):e9-32. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerFeasibility and effectiveness of integrating provider-initiated testing and counselling within family planning services in Kenya
Liambila W, Askew I, Mwangi J, et al. AIDS. 2009 Nov;23 Suppl 1:S115-21. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerComparing couples' and individual voluntary counseling and testing for HIV at antenatal clinics in Tanzania: a randomized trial
Becker S, Mlay R, Schwandt HM. AIDS Behav. 2009 Sep 10. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerUniversal HIV testing of infants at immunization clinics: an acceptable and feasible approach for early infant diagnosis in high HIV prevalence settings
Rollins N, Mzolo S, Moodley T. AIDS. 2009 Sept 10;23(14):1851-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerEvaluation of a dried blood spot HIV-1 RNA program for early infant diagnosis and viral load monitoring at rural and remote healthcare facilities
Lofgren SM, Morrissey AB, Chevallier CC. 2009 Nov 27;23(18):2459-66. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerRoutine offering of HIV testing to hospitalized pediatric patients at university teaching hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: Acceptability and feasibility
Kankasa C, Carter RJ, Bulterys M, et al. J Aquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;51:202-8. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerHIV testing rates and outcomes in a South African community, 2001-2006: implications for expanded screening policies
April MD, Walensky RP, Chang Y, et al. J Acquir Immune Def Syndr. 2009;51:310-6. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerIs the interruption of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy an additional major risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV type 1?
Galli L, Puliti D, Chiappini E, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1310-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerLow-cost HIV-1 diagnosis and quantification in dried blood spots by real time PCR
Mehta N, Trzmielina S, Nonyane BA, et al. PLoS ONE. 2009 Jun 5;4(6):e5819. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerEfficacy and acceptability of rapid, point-of-care HIV testing in two clinical settings in Ghana
Appiah LT, Havers F, Gibson J, Kay M, Sarfo F, Chadwick D. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2009. May;23(5):365-9. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerEffectiveness of a training-of-trainers model in a HIV counseling and testing programme in the Caribbean region
Hiner CA, Mandel BG, Weaver M, Bruce D, McLaughlin R, Anderson J. Hum Res Health. 2009 Feb17;7:11. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerThe costs and effectiveness of four HIV counseling and testing strategies in Uganda
Menzies N, Abang B, Nuwaha F, et al. AIDS. 2009;23(3):395-401. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerTest and tell: correlates and consequences of testing and disclosure of HIV status in South Africa (HTPN 043 Project Accept)
Wong LH, Van Rooyen H, Modiba P, et al. JAIDS. 2009;50(2):215-22. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerEarly HIV-1 diagnosis using in-house real-time PCR amplification on dried blood spots for infants in remote and resource-limited settings
Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Khamduang W, Leurent B, et al. JAIDS. 2008 Dec;49(5):465-71. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerRoutine rapid HIV screening in six community health centers serving populations at risk
Myers JJ, Modica C, Dufour MS, Bernstein C, McNamara K. Gen Intern Med. August 5, 2009.
decorative spacerHIV testing in a high-incidence population: is antibody testing alone good enough?
Stekler JD, Swenson PD, Coombs RW, et al. Clinic Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 19
decorative spacerDetection of individuals with acute HIV-1 infection using the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab combo assay
Eshleman SH, Khaki L, Laeyendecker O, et al. JAIDS. 2009 Jun 5.
decorative spacerEntertainment-education radio serial drama and outcomes related to HIV testing in Botswana
Pappas-DeLuca KA, Kraft JM, Galavotti C, et al. AIDS Educ Prev. 2008; 20(6):486-503. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerSuccessful introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing in antenatal care in Botswana
Creek TL, Ntumy R, Seipone K, et al. JAIDS. 2007;45:102-7. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerVoluntary counseling and testing: Uptake, impact on sexual behavior, and HIV incidence in a rural Zimbabwean cohort
Sherr L, Lopman B, Kakowa M, et al. AIDS. 2007;21:851-60 Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerRoutine HIV testing in the context of syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections: outcomes of the first phase of a training programme in Botswana
Weaver M, Myaya M, Disasi K, et al. Sex Trans Infect. 2008 Aug;84(4):259-64. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerA cluster-randomized trial of provider-initiated (opt-out) HIV counseling and testing of tuberculosis patients in South Africa
Pope D, DeLuca N, Kali P, et al. JAIDS. 2008 Jun;48(2):190-95. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerProvider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for TB patients and suspects in Nairobi, Kenya
Odhiambo J, Kizito W, Njoroge A, et al. Int J Tubercul Lung Dis. 2008 Mar;12(Supp 1):S63-68. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerCounseling and testing of TB patients for HIV: evaluation of three implementation models in Kinshasa, DR Congo
Van Rie A, Sabue M, Jarrett N, et al. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008;12(3):S73-8. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerHIV voluntary counseling and testing and behavioral risk reduction in developing countries: a meta-analysis, 1990-2005
Denison JA, O'Reilly KR, Schmid GP, Kennedy CE, Sweat MD. AIDS Behav. 2008;12:363-73. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerImpact of round-the-clock, rapid oral fluid HIV testing of women in labor in rural India
Pai NP, Barick R, Tulsky JP, Shivkumar PV, Cohan D, Kalantri S, Pai M, Klein MB, Chhabra S. PLoS Med. 2008 May 6;5(5):e92
decorative spacerEthical and human rights implications of HIV testing during pregnancy
Developing World Bioethics. April 2008 - Vol. 8 Issue 1 Page iii-57
decorative spacerChanging epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the United States: implications for enhancing and promoting HIV testing strategies
Fenton KA. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 15;45 Suppl 4:S213-20. [PDF, 372K]
decorative spacerRoutine voluntary HIV testing in Durban, South Africa: the experience from an outpatient department
Bassett IV, Giddy J, Nkera J, Wang B, Losina E, Lu Z, Freedberg KA, Walensky RP. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Oct 1;46(2):181-6. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerCosts and consequences of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommendations for opt-out HIV testing
Holtgrave, DR. PLoS Med. 2007 Jun 12;4(6): e194.
decorative spacerVoluntary counselling and testing: uptake, impact on sexual behavior, and HIV incidence in a rural Zimbabwean cohort
Sherr L, Lopman B, Kakowa M, Dube S, Chawira G, Nyamukapa C, Oberzaucher N, Cremin I, Gregson S. AIDS 2007. Apr 23;21(7):851-860. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerHIV voluntary counseling and testing among injection drug users in South China: A study of a non-government organization based program
Chen HT, Liang S, Liao Q, Wang S, Schumacher JE, Creger TN, Wilson CM, Dong B, Vermund SH. AIDS Behav. 2007 Mar 9; [Epub ahead of print].
decorative spacerHIV incidence during a cluster-randomized trial of two strategies providing voluntary counselling and testing at the workplace, Zimbabwe
Corbett EL, Makamure B, Cheung YB, Dauya E, Matambo R, Bandason T, Munyati SS, Mason PR, Butterworth AE, Hayes RJ. AIDS. 2007 Feb 19;21(4):483-489.
decorative spacer"There is such a thing as asking for trouble": Taking rapid HIV testing to gay venues is fraught with challenges
Prost A, Chopin M, McOwan A, Elam G, Dodds J, Macdonald N, Imrie J. Sex Transm Infect. 2007 Jan 17; [Epub ahead of print].
decorative spacerShort-Term Effect of a Cultural Adaptation of Voluntary Counseling and Testing Among Female Sex Workers in China: A Quasi-Experimental Trial
Li X, Wang B, Fang X, Zhao R, Stanton B, Hong Y, Dong B, Liu W, Zhou Y, Liang S, Yang H. AIDS Educ Prev 2006 Oct;18(5):406-19. Includes commentary from the UCSF Institute for Global Health.
decorative spacerBathhouse-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Is Feasible and Shows Preliminary Evidence of Effectiveness
Huebner DM, Binson D, Woods WJ, Dilworth SE, Neilands TB, Grinstead O. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Oct 1;43(2):239-46.
decorative spacerRoutine HIV Testing in Botswana: A Population-Based Study on Attitudes, Practices, and Human Rights Concerns
Weiser SD, Heisler M, Leiter K, Korte FP, Tlou S, Demonner S, Phaladze N, Bangsberg DR, Iacopino V. PLoS Med. 2006 Jul 18;3(7):e261. Full text of article is available with free registration.
decorative spacerDesperately Seeking Targets: The Ethics of Routine HIV Testing in Low-income Countries
Rennie S, Behets F. Bull World Health Organ. 2006 Jan;84(1):52-7. [PDF, 161K]
Guidelines and Best Practices
decorative spacer Screening for HIV: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement
Moyer, VA, on behalf of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, April 30, 2013.
decorative spacer HIV Testing Implementation Guidance for Correctional Settings
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2009.
decorative spacerGuidance on Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counselling in Health Facilities
UNAIDS, WHO May 2007. [PDF, 2.8 MB] Also in French. [PDF, 1.2 MB
decorative spacerGuidelines on Protecting the Confidentiality and Security of HIV Information
UNAIDS, May 15, 2007. [PDF,484K]
decorative spacerEarly detection of HIV Infection in Infants and Children
World Health Organization, May 2007. [PDF, 330K]
decorative spacerRevised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 2006;55(RR14);1-17.
decorative spacerbullet.gifHIV Testing in Health-Care Settings
AETC National Resource Center, January 2007. [PPT 198KB]
decorative spacerHIV Testing Among Pregnant Women--United States and Canada, 1998-2001
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 2002;51:1013-1016. See also the CDC's Dear Colleague letter of April 22, 2003. [PDF, 129K]
decorative spacerOpening Up the HIV/AIDS Epidemic: Guidance on Encouraging Beneficial Disclosure, Ethical Partner Counselling and Appropriate Use of HIV Case-Reporting
UNAIDS, November 2000. [PDF, 219K]
decorative spacerHIV Counseling with Rapid Tests
Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, CDC.
Policy Reports, Papers, and Briefs
decorative spacerHIV Testing Among High School Students - United States, 2007
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR. 58(24);665-668. June 26, 2009.
decorative spacerLate HIV Testing - 34 States, 1996-2005
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR. 2009;558(24);661-665.
decorative spacerProvider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling of TB Patients --- Livingstone District, Zambia, September 2004--December 2006
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR. 2008;57(11);285-289.
decorative spacerPercentage of Adults Aged >18 Years Who Reported Ever Being Tested for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), by Sex and Race/Ethnicity
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 2007;56(31);796.
decorative spacerRapid HIV Testing Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Men at Gay Pride Events --- Nine U.S. Cities, 2004--2006
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 2007;56(24);602-604.
decorative spacerRapid HIV Testing in Emergency Departments --- Three U.S. Sites, January 2005--March 2006
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 2007;56(24);597-601.
decorative spacerRevised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 2006;55(RR14);1-17.
decorative spacerRapid HIV Testing Assessment -- October 2006
National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors (NASTAD), October 2006. [PDF, 61K]
decorative spacerHIV Testing in the United States
Kaiser Family Foundation, September 2006. [PDF, 363K]
decorative spacerRapid HIV Test Distribution --- United States, 2003--2005
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 2006;55(24);673-676.
decorative spacerEquitable Access to HIV Counseling and Testing for Youth in Developing Countries: A Review of Current Practice
Ann P. McCauley. Horizons Program/International Center for Research on Women, September 2004. [PDF, 462K]
decorative spacerVoluntary HIV Testing as Part of Routine Medical Care--Massachusetts, 2002
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 2004;53:523-526.
decorative spacerHIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing: An Essential Component in Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
Horizons Research Summary, Population Council, December 2003. [PDF, 107K]
decorative spacerHIV and Partner Violence: Implications for HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Programs
Horizons Project/Population Council, February 2001. [PDF, 1.1MB]
Presentations, Interviews, and Roundtable Discussions
decorative spacerForum on CDC's New HIV Testing Recommendations
Panel discussion hosted on October 3, 2006 in Washington, D.C., to explore the implications of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's revised recommendations on HIV testing. Kaiser Family Foundation, October 2006.
Research Summaries
decorative spacerAddressing the HIV Prevention, Testing, and Treatment Needs of Mobile Populations: Focus on Truckers in Brazil
Horizons/Population Council, October 2006. [PDF, 849K]
decorative spacerSocial Relationships and Adolescents' HIV Counseling and Testing Decisions in Zambia
Horizons/Population Council, June 2006. [PDF, 416K]
decorative spacerSurvey of Americans on HIV/AIDS - Part Two: HIV Testing
Kaiser Family Foundation, June 15, 2004.
decorative spacerNot Enough Time, Not Enough Experience, Not Aware Of Risk: Why Healthcare Providers Don't Routinely Test Youth for HIV
Adolescent AIDS Program, Children's Hospital at Montefiore; New York, New Jersey AETC. April 2002. [PDF, 512K]
Online Books and Chapters
decorative spacerRapid HIV Testing Chapter: Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care
AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center, 2014.
Newsletter Articles
decorative spacerHIV Testing
Horizons Report, Population Council, December 2006.
decorative spacerThe Call for Routine HIV Testing Grows in the U.S.
Brenda Wilson, NPR, August 18, 2006. (Audio)
decorative spacerRoutine or Opt-Out Counselling and Testing: Findings from the 2006 PEPFAR Meeting
Keith Alcorn, Theo Smart. In: HIV & AIDS Treatment in Practice. Aidsmap, July 27, 2006.
Provider Education and Training
decorative spacerCouples HIV Counseling and Testing Intervention and Training Curriculum
A curriculum addressing complex issues of providing HIV testing and counseling to couples. Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group (RZHRG), Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, CDC Global AIDS Program, National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention. November 2007.
decorative spacerCounseling Trigger Tapes
International Training and Education Center on HIV, Caribbean HIV/AIDS Regional Training Initiative, February 2005.
Clinician Support Tools
decorative spacerGeneral and Laboratory Considerations: Rapid HIV Tests Currently Available in the United States
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, February 2007.
Program Management Materials
decorative spacerState HIV Testing Laws Compendium
National HIV/AIDS Clinicians' Consultation Center. University of California San Francisco, updated regularly.
decorative spacerChart: FDA-Approved Rapid HIV Antibody Screening Tests and Purchasing Details
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Research and Educational Trust. February 4, 2008. Also available are purchasing information
decorative spacerUSAID-Approved HIV/AIDS Rapid Test Kits
United States Agency for International Development (USAID), January 10, 2008. [PDF, 52K]
decorative spacerRapid HIV-1 Antibody Testing During Labor and Delivery for Women of Unknown HIV Status: A Practical Guide and Model Protocol
Margaret Lampe, Bernard Branson, Sindy Paul, Carolyn Burr, Elaine Gross, Cynthia Eicher, Robert Maupin, Dawn Averitt, Brian Forsyth, Mary Glenn Fowler. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 30, 2004.
decorative spacerWHO VCT Toolkit
WHO, 2004. Provides guidance on planning, implementing and evaluating HIV testing and counseling services in resource-limited settings for an audience of program managers and their partners in the public and private sectors.
decorative spacerCTR - HIV Counseling, Testing and Referral Services Self-assessment Tool for State and Territorial Health Departments
National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors, 2003. [PDF, 1.3MB]
decorative spacerThe Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Efficacy Study
Full program description, curriculum, and materials from a UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) trial of HIV counseling and testing in developing countries.
Patient and Community Education
decorative spacerI Am Pregnant. Should I Have an HIV Test?
Brochure from Siyawela Project, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, and HOPE worldwide, South Africa, April 2004. [PDF, 179K]
decorative spacerI Tested Negative: Staying HIV-Negative. I Tested Positive: HIV and your Pregnancy
Brochure from Siyawela Project, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, and HOPE worldwide, South Africa, April 2004. [PDF, 169K]
decorative spacerTelling Others That I Am HIV Positive
Brochure from Siyawela Project, Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, and HOPE worldwide, South Africa, April 2004. [PDF, 145K]
decorative spacerWhat Happens When You Get Tested for HIV?
HIV InSite HIV/AIDS Basics monograph.
decorative spacerNational HIV Testing Resources
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Links
Counseling & Testing Resources
decorative spacerCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention (CDC DHAP)
Funds over 10,000 public testing sites, issues testing guidelines and counselor training protocols, and makes recommendations for surveillance policy in the United States.
decorative spacerComment Dire
French-language site with provider training materials on HIV counseling and testing, slide sets, an extensive bibliography, and information on ordering counseling guides and films.
decorative spacerDELIVER
The DELIVER project helps developing countries establish effective and efficient supply chains for public health and family planning programs.
decorative spacerFamily Health International: Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV
(FHI) Overview of FHI's VCT research and links to FHI's counseling and testing fact sheets and documents.
decorative spacerFood and Drug Administration Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
(FDA CBER) Regulatory agency responsible for licensing tests for HIV in the United States. Site includes a listing of all approved HIV, HTLV, and hepatitis tests, as well as a fact sheet on HIV home test kits.
decorative spacerUNAIDS: Voluntary Counseling & Testing
Document collection from UNAIDS including reports and guidance on voluntary counseling and testing (VCT).
decorative spacerU.S. Agency for International Development
(USAID) Voluntary counseling and testing programs are provided and promoted by USAID in regions with high HIV prevalence; USAID programs have established testing centers, trained counselors, and supported community outreach workers.
Assay Manufacturers
decorative spacerFDA Licensed/Approved HIV, HTLV and Hepatitis Tests
Food and Drug Administration list of tests with information including name, use, manufacturer, and approval date.
decorative spacerCommercially Available Rapid Tests for HIV
Links to manufacturer's Web pages.
decorative spacerAbbott Diagnostics
Producers of HIV-1 antibody assays, including the OraQuick rapid HIV-1 blood test.
decorative spacerbullet.gifOra Quick Rapid Test
HIV-1 antibody test.
decorative spacerBio-Rad Laboratories
Makers of HIV-1 and HIV-2 tests, including Western blot and microplate assays. Products also include tests for hepatitis A, B, C and D; syphilis and malaria.
decorative spacerCalypte Biomedical
Makers of urine- and serum-based HIV tests.
decorative spacerEfoora
Makers of rapid test sensitive to HIV-1, HIV-2, and group O infections.
decorative spacerHome Access Health Corporation
Makers of Home Access HIV home collection kit.
decorative spacerOraSure Technologies
Makers of the OraSure oral HIV test and the OraQuick rapid HIV test.
decorative spacerRoche Diagnostics
Makers of the AMPLI line of diagnostic tools, including the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan Assays for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV.