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Interactions of Antiretroviral Drugs: Related Resources
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Related Knowledge Base Chapters
Antiretroviral Drugs Profiles
Laurence Peiperl, Susa Coffey.
Side Effects of Antiretroviral Drugs: Related Resources
Journal Articles
Polypharmacy and risk of antiretroviral drug interactions among the aging HIV-infected population
Holtzman C, Armon C, Tedaldi E, et al; HOPS Investigators. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Apr 20.
Inhaled corticosteroid use in HIV-positive individuals taking protease inhibitors: a review of pharmacokinetics, case reports and clinical management
Saberi P, Phengrasamy T, Nguyen D. HIV Med. 2013 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]
Pharmacotherapy considerations in patients with HIV and psychiatric disorders: focus on antidepressants and antipsychotics
Hill L, Lee KC. Ann Pharmacother. 2013 Jan;47(1):75-89. Review.
Global patient safety and antiretroviral drug-drug interactions in the resource-limited setting
Seden K, Khoo SH, Back D, et al. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013 Jan;68(1):1-3.
Using computer-based monitoring and intervention to prevent harmful combinations of antiretroviral drugs in the New York State AIDS Drug Assistance Program
Gonzalez CJ, Rivera CA, Martin RJ, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2012 Jun;38(6):269-76.
Contraception for the HIV-positive woman: a review of interactions between hormonal contraception and antiretroviral therapy
Robinson JA, Jamshidi R, Burke AE. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2012;2012:890160. Review.
Important drug-drug interactions in HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy: an update on new interactions between HIV and non-HIV drugs
Tseng A, Foisy M. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2012 Feb;14(1):67-82.
Pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions of antiretrovirals: an update
Dickinson L, Khoo S, Back D. Antiviral Res. 2010 Jan;85(1):176-89. Review.
Drug-drug interactions involving new antiretroviral drugs and drug classes
Soodalter J, Sousa M, Boffito M. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009 Feb;22(1):18-27. Review.
Drug interactions with new and investigational antiretrovirals
Brown KC, Paul S, Kashuba AD. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2009;48(4):211-41.
Clinical management of drug interaction with antiretroviral agents
Pau AK. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2008 May;3(3):319-24.
Drug-drug interactions with HIV antiretroviral therapy
Clarke A, Stein CR, Townsend ML. US Pharm. 2008;33(4):HS-3-HS-21. April 18, 2008.
Guidelines and Best Practices
Drug Interactions
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents.

Excerpt from the current version of the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents.

Managing Drug Interactions in the Treatment of HIV-Related Tuberculosis
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for managing drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral medications and rifamycins used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Criteria for the Medical Care of Adults with HIV Infection: HIV Drug-Drug Interactions
New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute, April 2010. Contains general recommendations and key points to accompany New York state ARV treatment guidelines.
Criteria for the Medical Care of Adults with HIV Infection: Long-Term Complications of Antiretroviral Therapy
New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute, March 2008. Contains general recommendations and key points to accompany New York state ARV treatment guidelines.
Criteria for the Medical Care of Adults with HIV Infection: Drug-Drug Interactions Between ARV Agents, Medications Used in Substance Use Treatment, and Recreational Drugs
New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute, March 2008. Contains general recommendations and key points to accompany New York state ARV treatment guidelines.
Online Books and Chapters
Antiretroviral Medications and Oral Contraceptive Agents Chapter: Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care
AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center, 2012.
Drug-Drug Interactions with HIV-Related Medications Chapter: Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care
AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center, 2014.
Provider Education and Training
HIV Drug Interactions Workshop
Cocohoba J, Teague R. San Francisco: UCSF San Francisco Area AIDS Education and Training Center; October 2008. Interactive training activities for clinicians.presented by the Pacific AETC.
Clinician Support Tools
Database of Antiretroviral Drug Interactions
HIV InSite's fully referenced searchable database of interactions involving at least one antiretroviral drug. Provides information regarding effects on drug levels, potential clinical effects, mechanisms of interaction, management tips, and suggested alternative agents.
Antiretroviral Contraindications and Drug Interactions
Monthly Prescribing Reference (MPR); April 2013. [PDF, 61K]
Drug Interactions with Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors and HIV Medications: A Quick Guide for Clinicians
Faragon J, Fish D, Glesby M; New York/New Jersey AETC; June 2013. [PDF, 102K]
Psychiatric Medications and HIV Antiretrovirals: A Drug Interaction Guide for Clinicians
Faragon J, Cournos F, Wainberg M; New York/New Jersey AETC; March 2013. [PDF, 597K]
Opioid Pain and Addiction Management Medications--Drug Interactions with HIV Antiretrovirals: A Drug Interaction Guide for Clinicians
Faragon J, Cournos F; New York/New Jersey AETC; Spring 2013. [PDF, 1.7MB]
University of Liverpool HIV Drug Interaction Charts
A website featuring customizable charts, recent publications, presentations, and slide sets about HIV drug interactions.
AIDSInfo Mobile Resources and Tools
AIDSInfo, a service of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. AIDSInfo's PDA Tools which include an Antiretroviral Toxicity Tool and Drug Database.
Drug-Drug Interactions in HIV-Infected Patients: A Downloadable Tool for Mobile Devices
A downloadable tool for Palm and Pocket PC/Windows Mobile handheld devices, provided by Clinical Care Options. The tool features an interactive database of nteractions between antiretrovirals and other medications frequently prescribed for HIV-infected patients.
Recreational Drugs and HIV Antivirals: A Guide to Interactions for Clinicians
Urbina A, Faragon J, Kubin C, Castillo A; New York/New Jersey AETC; November 2009. [PDF, 1.3MB]
Patient and Community Education
Drug Interactions
NAM-AIDSMAP; 2013. A patient-education booklet discussing drug interactions between ARV medications and between ARVs and other medications. Also available as an online flipbook.
Check My Meds
AIDS Meds and POZ. A tool for patients to check for potential interactions among the drugs they are taking.
AIDSinfo Drug Database
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) project providing information on antiretroviral treatment and drugs that treat or prevent AIDS-related illness.
Succinct, easy-to-read information on HIV drugs and related issues.
Anti-HIV/OI/TB Therapeutics Database
Computerized databases containing chemical structures and biological data established at the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of NIAID to foster developments in the chemotherapy of HIV, opportunistic infections, and tuberculosis and to serve as an information source.
Database of Antiretroviral Drug Interactions
Search by antiretroviral drug, interacting drug, or interacting drug class. Maintained by HIV InSite.
Site features information on interactions with each class of antiretroviral drugs. Maintained by the Liverpool HIV Pharmacology Group, University of Liverpool.
HIV Medication Guide
Features information on single- and multiple-HIV drug interactions, a customizable medication chart function, patient drug pamphlets, and more. Available in English and French from JAG enterprises, a clinical pharmacy consultation firm.
Johns Hopkins HIV Guide
An on-line decision support tool designed to assist clinicians in the diagnosis, management and treatment of HIV/AIDS. Requires registration.
An easy-to-read site with a comprehensive overview of the discovery and development of AIDS therapeutics, from the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
Toronto General Hospital Immunodeficiency Clinic
HIV treatment resources, including drug interactions tables, fact sheets, and other information for health care professionals.
Clinical Pharmacology
Up-to-date, peer reviewed, clinically-relevant information on all U.S. drugs, as well as off-label uses and dosages, herbal supplements, nutritional products, and new and investigational drugs. Requires paid subscription.
Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table
Designed as a hypothesis testing, teaching, and reference tool for physicians and researchers interested in drug interactions that are the result of competition for, or effects on the human cytochrome P450 system. Includes links to canned PubMed searches.
FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
(CDER) Reports and information on prescription and over-the-counter drugs, as well as regulatory issues and the drug approval process, public health alerts, and more.
Physicians' Desk Reference online, featuring drug and healthcare information, with separate interfaces for physicians, pharmacists, physician assistants, nurses, and consumers. Registration is required, and is either free or fee-based, depending on the level of access desired.
Index of information on pharmaceutical products from WebMD. Features search function for looking up drugs by the pill imprint code, color, or shape.
Adverse Event Reporting and Emergencies
American Association of Poison Control Centers
List of poison control centers.
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry
Intended to provide an early signal of any major teratogenic effect associated with a prenatal exposure to the products monitored through the registry, a voluntary prospective, exposure-registration, observational study designed to collect and evaluate data on the outcomes of pregnancy exposures to antiretroviral products.
FDA safety information and adverse event reporting program for drugs and other medical products.
U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention
A scientific nonprofit organization that sets standards for the identity, strength, quality, and purity of medicines, food ingredients, and dietary supplements manufactured, distributed and consumed worldwide.
Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System
(VAERS) Vaccine surveillance program of the FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research.