|Assays for Antiretroviral Resistance: Related Resources|
|Content reviewed July 2013|
| Related Knowledge Base Chapters|
| Journal Articles|
|HIV-1 antiretroviral resistance: scientific principles and clinical applications|
Tang MW, Shafer RW. Drugs. 2012 Jun 18;72(9):e1-25.
|Interpretation of resistance data from randomized trials of first-line antiretroviral treatment|
Clotet B, Hill A, van Delft Y, et al. AIDS Rev. 2012 Oct-Dec;14(4):247-55.
|Improving clinical laboratory efficiency: introduction of systems for the diagnosis and monitoring of HIV infection|
Alvarez M, Chueca N, Guillot V, et al. Open Virol J. 2012;6:135-43.
|Description of two commercially available assays for genotyping of HIV-1|
Stürmer M, Reinheimer C. Intervirology. 2012;55(2):134-7. Review.
|Dried blood spots for HIV-1 drug resistance and viral load testing: A review of current knowledge and WHO efforts for global HIV drug resistance surveillance|
Bertagnolio S, Parkin NT, Jordan M, et al. AIDS Rev. 2010 Oct-Dec;12(4):195-208. Review.
|HIV-1 drug resistance mutations: an updated framework for the second decade of HAART|
Shafer RW, Schapiro JM. AIDS Rev. 2008 Apr-Jun;10(2):67-84. Review.
|Consensus drug resistance mutations for epidemiological surveillance: basic principles and potential controversies|
Shafer RW, Rhee SY, Bennett DE. Antivir Ther. 2008;13 Suppl 2:59-68. Review.
| Guidelines and Best Practices|
|WHO Global Strategy for the Surveillance and Monitoring of HIV Drug Resistance: 2012|
World Health Organization; November 2012.
|WHO Manual for HIV Drug Resistance Testing Using Dried Blood Spot Specimens|
World Health Organization; July 2012.
|Report on WHO ResNet Annual Meeting (March 4, 2012)|
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; published July 2012.
Annual consultation to provide an update on the ongoing activities of the WHO HIV ResNet, obtain ResNet endorsement for newly developed components in the global HIV drug resistance surveillance and monitoring strategy, and discuss the scenarios to strengthen implementation of the strategy in the future.
|Update on World Health Organization HIV drug resistance prevention and assessment strategy: 2004-2011|
Jordan MR, Bennett DE, Wainberg MA, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 May;54 Suppl 4:S245-9.
|Guidance for Industry: Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro HIV Drug Resistance Genotype Assay|
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Rockville, MD: DHHS; March 2011.
|Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing in Adults Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: 2008 Recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA Panel|
Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jul 15;47(2):266-85. See also 2014 Update of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1. Top Antivir Med. 2014 Jun-Jul;22(3):642-50. [PDF, 331K]
|World Health Organization/HIVResNet Drug Resistance Laboratory Strategy|
Bertagnolio S, Derdelinckx I, Parker M, et al. Antivir Ther. 2008;13 Suppl 2:49-57. April 2008.
A laboratory strategy developed by the WHO and the HIVResNet Laboratory Working Group aimed at assisting countries in the development of protocols, standards, and performance indicators for HIV resistance testing.
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| Online Books and Chapters|
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| Patient and Community Education|