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Assays for Antiretroviral Resistance: Related Resources
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Related Knowledge Base Chapters
decorative spacerGenotypic Testing for HIV-1 Drug Resistance
Robert W. Shafer, April 2004.
Journal Articles
decorative spacerHIV-1 antiretroviral resistance: scientific principles and clinical applications
Tang MW, Shafer RW. Drugs. 2012 Jun 18;72(9):e1-25.
decorative spacerInterpretation of resistance data from randomized trials of first-line antiretroviral treatment
Clotet B, Hill A, van Delft Y, et al. AIDS Rev. 2012 Oct-Dec;14(4):247-55.
decorative spacerImproving clinical laboratory efficiency: introduction of systems for the diagnosis and monitoring of HIV infection
Alvarez M, Chueca N, Guillot V, et al. Open Virol J. 2012;6:135-43.
decorative spacerDescription of two commercially available assays for genotyping of HIV-1
Stürmer M, Reinheimer C. Intervirology. 2012;55(2):134-7. Review.
decorative spacerDried blood spots for HIV-1 drug resistance and viral load testing: A review of current knowledge and WHO efforts for global HIV drug resistance surveillance
Bertagnolio S, Parkin NT, Jordan M, et al. AIDS Rev. 2010 Oct-Dec;12(4):195-208. Review.
decorative spacerHIV-1 drug resistance mutations: an updated framework for the second decade of HAART
Shafer RW, Schapiro JM. AIDS Rev. 2008 Apr-Jun;10(2):67-84. Review.
decorative spacerConsensus drug resistance mutations for epidemiological surveillance: basic principles and potential controversies
Shafer RW, Rhee SY, Bennett DE. Antivir Ther. 2008;13 Suppl 2:59-68. Review.
Guidelines and Best Practices
decorative spacerWHO Global Strategy for the Surveillance and Monitoring of HIV Drug Resistance: 2012
World Health Organization; November 2012.
decorative spacerWHO Manual for HIV Drug Resistance Testing Using Dried Blood Spot Specimens
World Health Organization; July 2012.
decorative spacerReport on WHO ResNet Annual Meeting (March 4, 2012)
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; published July 2012.

Annual consultation to provide an update on the ongoing activities of the WHO HIV ResNet, obtain ResNet endorsement for newly developed components in the global HIV drug resistance surveillance and monitoring strategy, and discuss the scenarios to strengthen implementation of the strategy in the future.

decorative spacerUpdate on World Health Organization HIV drug resistance prevention and assessment strategy: 2004-2011
Jordan MR, Bennett DE, Wainberg MA, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 May;54 Suppl 4:S245-9.
decorative spacerGuidance for Industry: Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro HIV Drug Resistance Genotype Assay
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Rockville, MD: DHHS; March 2011.
decorative spacer Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing in Adults Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: 2008 Recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA PanelClin Infect Dis. 2008 Jul 15;47(2):266-85. See also 2014 Update of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1. Top Antivir Med. 2014 Jun-Jul;22(3):642-50. [PDF, 331K]
decorative spacerWorld Health Organization/HIVResNet Drug Resistance Laboratory Strategy
Bertagnolio S, Derdelinckx I, Parker M, et al. Antivir Ther. 2008;13 Suppl 2:49-57. April 2008.

A laboratory strategy developed by the WHO and the HIVResNet Laboratory Working Group aimed at assisting countries in the development of protocols, standards, and performance indicators for HIV resistance testing.

Conference Reports and Proceedings
decorative spacer2013 International Workshop on HIV & Hepatitis Virus Drug Resistance and Curative Strategies
University of California San Diego; June 4-8, 2013; Toronto.

Website includes conference abstracts and select presentations.

decorative spacerProgram and Abstracts of the 12th Annual Symposium of Antiviral Drug Resistance
University of Pittsburgh; HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute. November 6-9, 2011; Hersey, Pennsylvania.
Online Books and Chapters
decorative spacerResistance Testing Chapter: Clinical Manual for Management of the HIV-Infected Adult
AIDS Education and Training Centers National Resource Center, July 2014.
decorative spacerHIV Drug Resistance Testing
Cane P. In: Stephenson Jr, Warnes A, eds. Diagnostic Virology Protocols, 2nd Edition. New York: Humana Press; 2011.
Clinician Support Tools
decorative spacerStanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database
A resource for researchers featuring a curated database of nearly all published HIV resistance sequences, including a wide variety of clinician tools and charts.
Slide Sets
decorative spacerAntiretroviral Resistance Testing in the Management of HIV-Infected Patients
Northwest AETC, August 2006. [PowerPoint, 4.2MB]
decorative spacerUpdate of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1: March 2013
International Antiviral Society-USA Resistance Testing Guidelines Panel, Drug Resistance Mutations Group.
Patient and Community Education
decorative spacerHIV Resistance Testing
Patient fact sheet about antiretroviral drug resistance.
decorative spacerA Guide to HIV Drug Resistance
An easy-to-read overview for patients from The Body. See also the The Body's HIV drug resistance topic page.
decorative spacerHIV Resistance Testing Panel Reports - NCCC Warmline and UCSF Positive Health Program
Case-based clinical interpretation of resistance assay reports. HIV Resistance Testing Consultation Panel, a service of the Warmline and the UCSF Positive Health Program at San Francisco General Hospital.
decorative spacerNational Cancer Institute HIV Drug Resistance Program
Organizes and conducts research and symposia on HIV drug resistance at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), one of the National Institutes of Health.
The program's website features the Recent HIV DRP Publications
page, a regularly updated bibliography of current journal articles and other publications regarding HIV drug resistance.
decorative spacerAffymetrix
decorative spacerApplied Biosystems
decorative spacerMonogram Biosciences (formerly ViroLogic)
decorative spacerbullet.gifPhenoSense
Information on PhenoSense HIV phenotypic drug resistance assay.
decorative spacerInnogenetics
decorative spacerLabCorp
decorative spacerTibotec
decorative spacerVirco