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Global Health Literature Digest
These journal articles are selected from a biweekly digest produced by UCSF Global Health Sciences (GHS). This literature digest collection highlights recently published studies of practical relevance for resource-limited settings. These studies of behavioral, policy, and prevention interventions have one or more of the following aims: to reduce sexual or drug-related risk behaviors, to decrease primary or secondary transmission, to improve health service delivery and quality of life, and to improve HIV treatment and treatment adherence. The studies featured have been summarized and put into context by research staff at UCSF Global Health Sciences. In order to access older issues, please see the Archived Issues. Summaries and reviewer commentary are the work of GHS authors and have been published here with the permission of GHS.
May 12, 2011

Population-based monitoring of HIV drug resistance in Namibia with early warning indicators
A comparison of HIV detection rates using routine opt-out provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling versus a standard of care approach in a rural African setting
Task shifting of antiretroviral delivery from health care workers to persons living with HIV/AIDS: clinical outcomes of a community-based program in Kenya
Twelve-month follow-up of six week extended dose nevirapine randomized controlled trials: differential impact of extended-dose nevirapine on mother-to-child transmission and infant death by maternal CD4 cell count
April 11, 2011

Antiretroviral therapy and TB notification rates in a high HIV prevalence South African community.
Maternal HIV infection and antibody responses against vaccine-preventable diseases in uninfected infants.
Survival of HIV-infected children: A cohort study from the Asia-Pacific region
Exploring the condom gap: is supply or demand the limiting factor - condom access and use in an urban and a rural setting in Kilifi district, Kenya
March 28, 2011

Association of aging and survival in a large HIV-infected cohort on antiretroviral therapy in Uganda
HIV-1 transmission among HIV-1 discordant couples before and after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Rakai, Uganda
Population-based biomedical sexually transmitted infection control interventions for reducing HIV infection
The impact of maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy and short-course combination antiretrovirals for prevention of mother-to-child transmission on early infant infection Rates at the Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda, January 2007 to May 2009
February 28, 2011

Changes in programmatic outcomes during 7 years of scale-up at a community-based antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa
Long-term survival of HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Thailand: A 5-year observational cohort study
Viral load predicts new world health organization stage 3 and 4 events in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, independent of CD4 T lymphocyte value
Progression and regression of premalignant cervical lesions in HIV-infected women from Soweto: a prospective cohort
February 14, 2011

Risk of viral failure declines with duration of suppression of highly active antiretroviral therapy irrespective of adherence level
Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): a randomized trial
Comparison of two active case-finding strategies for community-based diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive tuberculosis and control of infectious tuberculosis in Harare, Zimbabwe (EDTECTB): a cluster-randomised trial
Provision of micronutrient-fortified food from 6 months of age does not permit HIV-exposed uninfected Zambian children to catch up in growth to HIV-unexposed children: a randomized controlled trial
January 31, 2011

Efficacy of human papillomavirus-based screen-and-treat for cervical cancer prevention among HIV-infected women
Male antenatal attendance and HIV testing are associated with decreased infant HIV infection and increased HIV-free survival
Efficacy of structural-level condom distribution interventionns: A meta-analysis of U.S. and international studies, 1998-2007
Triple antiretroviral compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis during pregnancy and breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (Kesho Bora study): a randomised controlled trial
January 18, 2011

Entry and retention in medical care among HIV-diagnosed persons: a meta-analysis
Scale up of national antiretroviral therapy programs: progress and challenges in the Asia pacific region
Impact of tuberculosis cotreatment on viral suppression rates among HIV-positive children initiating HAART
Extended antenatal antiretroviral use correlates with improved infant outcomes throughout the first year of life
January 3, 2011

Directly observed antiretroviral therapy improves adherence and viral load in drug users attending methadone maintenance clinics: A randomized controlled trial
Treatment interruption in a primary care antiretroviral therapy program in South Africa: cohort analysis of trends and risk factors
Effect of acquisition and treatment of cervical infections on HIV-1 shedding in women on antiretroviral therapy
Adjusting HIV prevalence for survey non-response using mortality rates; an application of the method using surveillance data from rural South Africa

These studies have been summarized by UCSF Global Health Sciences with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global AIDS Program (CDC-GAP). The Digest is then distributed by the U.S. State Department Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) to its personnel based worldwide.