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Global Health Literature Digest
These journal articles are selected from a biweekly digest produced by UCSF Global Health Sciences (GHS). This literature digest collection highlights recently published studies of practical relevance for resource-limited settings. These studies of behavioral, policy, and prevention interventions have one or more of the following aims: to reduce sexual or drug-related risk behaviors, to decrease primary or secondary transmission, to improve health service delivery and quality of life, and to improve HIV treatment and treatment adherence. The studies featured have been summarized and put into context by research staff at UCSF Global Health Sciences. In order to access older issues, please see the Archived Issues. Summaries and reviewer commentary are the work of GHS authors and have been published here with the permission of GHS.
December 13, 2010

Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men
Cost-effectiveness of routine rapid human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing before DNA-PCR testing for early diagnosis of infants in resource-limited settings
Cost-effectiveness of laboratory monitoring in sub Saharan Africa: a review of the current literature
Facts, attitudes, and health reasoning about HIV and AIDS: Explaining the education effect on condom use among adults in sub-Saharan Africa
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November 30, 2010

Results of a community-based antiretroviral treatment program for HIV-1 infection in Western Uganda
Nurse versus doctor management of HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (CIPRA-SA): a randomised non-inferiority trial
Association between weight gain and clinical outcomes among malnourished adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia
Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men
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November 1, 2010

Initiating patients on antiretroviral therapy at CD4 cell counts above 200 cells/µl is associated with improved treatment outcomes in South Africa
Evaluation of the PIMA point-of-care CD4 analyzer in VCT clinics in Zimbabwe
The clinical pattern, prevalence, and factors associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in Ugandan children
Addition of 7 days of zidovudine plus nevirapine to peripartum single-dose nevirapine effectively reduces nevirapine resistance postpartum in HIV-infected mothers in Malawi
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October 18, 2010

Drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected Zambian children using adult fixed dose combination stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine
Cost-effectiveness of routine and low-cost CD4 T-cell count compared with WHO clinical staging of HIV to guide initiation of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980-2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5
A pilot intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing and counseling among men who have sex with men in Anhui, China
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October 4, 2010

Trends in retention on antiretroviral therapy in national programs in low-income and middle-income countries
Intimate partner violence, relationship power inequity, and incidence of HIV infection in young women in South Africa: a cohort study
Effect on mortality and virological response of delaying antiretroviral therapy initiation in children receiving tuberculosis treatment
Short-term risk of HIV disease progression and death in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy
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September 29, 2010

CD4+ cell count testing more effective than HIV disease clinical staging in identifying pregnant and postpartum women eligible for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
Mycobacterium tuberculosis microbiologic and clinical treatment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of immediate versus CD4+-initiated antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults with a high CD4+ cell count
Clinical deterioration during anti-tuberculosis treatment in Africa: Incidence, causes and risk factors
Maternal or infant antiretroviral drugs to reduce HIV-1 transmission
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September 09, 2010

Feasibility and effectiveness of integrating provider-initiated testing and counselling within family planning services in Kenya
Significantly diminished long-term specificity of the BED capture enzyme immunoassay among patients with HIV-1 with very low CD4 counts and those on antiretroviral therapy
Economic evaluations of adult male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review
Benefits and costs of expanding access to family planning programs to women living with HIV
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August 30, 2010

Effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in women previously exposed to a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine: A multi country, prospective cohort study
Daily Cotrimoxazole in severely immunosuppressed HIV-infected adults in Africa started on combination antiretroviral therapy: An observational analysis of the DART cohort
Male circumcision and risk of male-to-female HIV-1 transmission: a multinational prospective study in African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples
A pilot intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing and counseling among men who have sex with men in Anhui, China
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August 6, 2010

Routine versus clinically driven laboratory monitoring of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa (DART): A randomised non-inferiority trial
Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis
Increased risk of genital ulcer disease in women during the first month after initiating antiretroviral therapy
Effectiveness and safety of vaginal microbicide 1% tenofovir gel for prevention of HIV infection in women
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July 26, 2010

Misclassification of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure based on immunological monitoring of HIV infection in resource-limited settings
A randomized trial to determine the optimal dosage of multivitamin supplements to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women in Tanzania
Rates of virological failure in patients treated in a home-based versus a facility-based HIV-care model in Jinja, southeast Uganda: a cluster-randomised equivalence trial
Addition of extended zidovudine to extended nevirapine prophylaxis reduces nevirapine resistance in infants who were HIV-infected in utero
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June 21, 2010

High rates of survival, immune reconstitution and virologic suppression on second-line antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
Frequency of gastroenteritis and gastroenteritis-associated mortality with early weaning in HIV-1-uninfected children born to HIV-infected women in Malawi
Antiretroviral therapy in antenatal care to increase treatment initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women: a stepped-wedge evaluation
Antiretroviral therapy in antenatal care to increase treatment initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women: a stepped-wedge evaluation
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June 03, 2010

Prognosis of patients treated with cART from 36 months after initiation, according to current and previous CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements
Foreskin surface area and HIV acquisition in Rakai, Uganda (size matters)
Breastfeeding, mother-to-child HIV transmission, and mortality among infants born to HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda
Paediatric HIV management at primary care level: an evaluation of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) guidelines for HIV
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May 10, 2010

Switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: comparison of programmes with and without viral load monitoring
Comparing couples' and individual voluntary counseling and testing for HIV at antenatal clinics in Tanzania: a randomized trial
Breastfeeding with maternal antiretroviral therapy or formula feeding to prevent HIV postnatal mother-to-child transmission in Rwanda
Universal HIV testing of infants at immunization clinics: an acceptable and feasible approach for early infant diagnosis in high HIV prevalence settings
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April 21, 2010

Expanding antiretroviral options in resource-limited settings-a cost-effectiveness analysis
Understanding reasons for and outcomes of patients lost to follow-up in antiretroviral therapy programs in Africa through a sampling-based approach
Predictors of virologic failure and genotypic resistance mutation patterns in Thai children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy
Impact of HAART and CNS-penetrating antiretroviral regimens on HIV encephalopathy among perinatally infected children and adolescents
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March 18, 2010

Mortality and virologic outcomes after access to antiretroviral therapy among a cohort of HIV-infected women who received single-dose nevirapine in Lusaka, Zambia
Biomarker validation of reports of recent sexual activity: results of a randomized controlled study in Zimbabwe
Evaluation of a dried blood spot HIV-1 RNA program for early infant diagnosis and viral load monitoring at rural and remote healthcare facilities
Universal HIV testing of infants at immunization clinics: an acceptable and feasible approach for early infant diagnosis in high HIV prevalence settings
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February 3, 2010

The clinical burden of tuberculosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in western Kenya and the impact of combination antiretroviral treatment
Short-term and long-term risk of tuberculosis associated with CD4 cell recovery during antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. AIDS
Foreskin inflammation is associated with HIV and herpes simplex virus type-2 infections in Rakai, Uganda
Knowledge of HIV status, sexual risk behaviors and contraceptive need among people living with HIV in Kenya and Malawi
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January 14, 2010

Cause-specific mortality and the contribution of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the first 3 years after antiretroviral therapy initiation in an urban African cohort
Assessment of the low-cost Cavidi ExaVir Load assay for monitoring HIV viral load in pediatric and adult patients
Circumcision in HIV-infected men and its effect on HIV transmission to female partners in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised controlled trial
Temporal changes in causes of death among HIV-infected patients in the HAART era in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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January 04, 2010

HIV-1 genetic diversity and transmitted resistance in health care settings in Maputo, Mozambigue
Supplementary feeding with either ready-to-use fortified spread or corn-soy blend in wasted adults starting antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: randomised, investigator blinded, controlled trial
HIV testing rates and outcomes in a South African community, 2001-2006: implications for expanded screening policies
Routine offering of HIV testing to hospitalized pediatric patients at university teaching hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: Acceptability and feasibility
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These studies have been summarized by UCSF Global Health Sciences with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global AIDS Program (CDC-GAP). The Digest is then distributed by the U.S. State Department Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) to its personnel based worldwide.