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Global Health Literature Digest
These journal articles are selected from a biweekly digest produced by UCSF Global Health Sciences (GHS). This literature digest collection highlights recently published studies of practical relevance for resource-limited settings. These studies of behavioral, policy, and prevention interventions have one or more of the following aims: to reduce sexual or drug-related risk behaviors, to decrease primary or secondary transmission, to improve health service delivery and quality of life, and to improve HIV treatment and treatment adherence. The studies featured have been summarized and put into context by research staff at UCSF Global Health Sciences. In order to access older issues, please see the Archived Issues. Summaries and reviewer commentary are the work of GHS authors and have been published here with the permission of GHS.
November 30, 2009

Increasing uptake of HIV testing and counseling among the poorest in sub-Saharan countries through home-based service provision
Low-cost HIV-1 diagnosis and quantification in dried blood spots by real time PCR
Male circumcision for the prevention of HSV-2 and HPV infections and syphilis
Is the interruption of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy an additional major risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV type 1?
October 19, 2009

Antiretroviral therapy adherence, virologic and immunologic outcomes in adolescents compared with adults in southern Africa
Efficacy and acceptability of rapid, point-of-care HIV testing in two clinical settings in Ghana
Integrated gender-based violence and HIV risk reduction intervention for South African men: Results of a quasi-experimental field trial
Mobilizing men as partners: the results of an intervention to increase dual protection among Nigerian men
October 5, 2009

Failure of immunologic criteria to appropriately identify antiretroviral treatment failure in Uganda
The UALE Project: Decline in the incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections and increase in the use of condoms among sex workers in Guatemala
Primary HIV-1 infection among infants in sub-Saharan Africa: HPTN 024
The ADAPT-ITT model: a novel method of adapting evidence-based HIV interventions
September 21, 2009

Impact of a modified directly administered antiretroviral treatment intervention on virological outcome in HIV-infected patients treated in Burkina Faso and Mali
Association of attitudes and beliefs towards antiretroviral therapy with HIV-seroprevalence in the general population of Kisumu, Kenya
Intensified tuberculosis case finding among HIV-infected persons from a voluntary counseling and testing center in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Differential effects of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers by severity of maternal disease
September 7, 2009

Steep declines in population-level AIDS mortality following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Two-year virologic outcomes of an alternative AIDS care model: evaluation of a peer health worker and nurse-staffed community-based program in Uganda
Efficacy of Carraguard for prevention of HIV infection in women in South Africa: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Short-term antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission is safe and results in a sustained increase in CD4 T-cell counts in HIV-1-infected mothers
August 17, 2009

Impact of aciclovir on genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2/HIV-1 co-infected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in South Africa
The costs and effectiveness of four HIV counseling and testing strategies in Uganda
Effectiveness of a training-of-trainers model in a HIV counseling and testing programme in the Caribbean region
Transmission probabilities of HIV and herpes simplex type 2, effect of male circumcision and interactions: a longitudinal study in a township of South Africa
August 4, 2009

HIV-1 viral load monitoring: an opportunity to reinforce treatment adherence in a resource-limited setting in Thailand
Test and tell: correlates and consequences of testing and disclosure of HIV status in South Africa (HTPN 043 Project Accept)
Risk factors for early and late transmission of HIV via breast-feeding among infants born to HIV-infected women in a randomized clinical trial in Botswana
The impact of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief on expansion of HIV care services for adult patients in western Kenya
July 22, 2009

A public health approach to rapid scale-up of antiretroviral treatment in Malawi during 2004-2006
Implementation of a comprehensive program including psycho-social and treatment literacy activities to improve adherence to HIV care and treatment for a pediatric population in Kenya
Morbidity in HIV-1-infected children treated or not treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 2000-04
Early HIV-1 diagnosis using in-house real-time PCR amplification on dried blood spots for infants in remote and resource-limited settings
June 30, 2009

Randomized trial of a community-based alcohol-related HIV risk-reduction intervention for men and women in Cape Town, South Africa
Declines in risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infection prevalence following a community-led HIV preventive intervention among female sex workers in Mysore, India
Economic analysis of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India to inform resource allocation
Successful integration of tuberculosis and HIV treatment in rural South Africa: The Sizonq'oba Study
June 15, 2009

Two-year outcomes of children on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor regimens in a South African pediatric antiretroviral program
Entertainment-education radio serial drama and outcomes related to HIV testing in Botswana
Safety and efficacy of initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in an integrated antenatal and HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa
Infant feeding, HIV transmission and mortality at 18 months: the need for appropriate choices by mothers and prioritization within programmes
May 11, 2009

Risk compensation is not associated with male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya: A multi-faceted assessment of men enrolled in a randomized controlled trial
Interventions for preventing late postnatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Five-year outcomes of initial patients treated in Botswana's National Antiretroviral Treatment Program
Survival from 9 months of age among HIV-infected and uninfected Zambian children prior to the availability of antiretroviral therapy
April 17, 2009

Successful introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing in antenatal care in Botswana
Male circumcision for HIV prevention: a prospective study of complications in clinical and traditional settings in Bungoma, Kenya
Male circumcision for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: who, what, when?
Evaluation of the WHO criteria for antiretroviral treatment failure among adults in South Africa
March 10, 2009

Baseline renal insufficiency and risk of death among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia
Effects of duration of HIV infection and secondary tuberculosis transmission on tuberculosis incidence in the South African gold mines
HIV prevalence and incidence are no longer falling in southwest Uganda: evidence from a rural population cohort 1989-2005
Antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with advanced HIV disease and pregnancy outcomes in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire
February 10, 2009

Impact of Stepping Stones on incidence of HIV and HSV-2 and sexual behaviour in rural South Africa: cluster randomized controlled trial
HIV/AIDS risk reduction counseling for alcohol using sexually transmitted infections clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa
Voluntary counseling and testing: Uptake, impact on sexual behavior, and HIV incidence in a rural Zimbabwean cohort
Adherence support workers: A way to address human resource constraints in antiretroviral treatment programs in the public health setting in Zambia
January 20, 2009

Evaluating adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy with use of pill counts and viral load measurement in the drug resources enhancement against AIDS and malnutrition program in Mozambique
Short- and long-term efficacy of modified directly observed antiretroviral treatment Mombasa, Kenya: A randomized trial
Substance use, sexual risk, and violence: HIV prevention intervention with sex workers in Pretoria
Routine HIV testing in the context of syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections: outcomes of the first phase of a training programme in Botswana

These studies have been summarized by UCSF Global Health Sciences with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global AIDS Program (CDC-GAP). The Digest is then distributed by the U.S. State Department Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) to its personnel based worldwide.