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Global Health Literature Digest
These journal articles are selected from a biweekly digest produced by UCSF Global Health Sciences (GHS). This literature digest collection highlights recently published studies of practical relevance for resource-limited settings. These studies of behavioral, policy, and prevention interventions have one or more of the following aims: to reduce sexual or drug-related risk behaviors, to decrease primary or secondary transmission, to improve health service delivery and quality of life, and to improve HIV treatment and treatment adherence. The studies featured have been summarized and put into context by research staff at UCSF Global Health Sciences. In order to access older issues, please see the Archived Issues. Summaries and reviewer commentary are the work of GHS authors and have been published here with the permission of GHS.
December 16, 2008

Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for TB patients and suspects in Nairobi, Kenya
A cluster-randomized trial of provider-initiated (opt-out) HIV counseling and testing of tuberculosis patients in South Africa
Lack of effectiveness of cellulose sulfate gel for the prevention of vaginal HIV transmission
November 03, 2008

Counseling and testing of TB patients for HIV: evaluation of three implementation models in Kinshasa, DR Congo
Maternal herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection increases the risk of perinatal HIV transmission: possibility to further decrease transmission?
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding by treating infants prophylactically with lamivudine in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: the Mitra Study
Extended antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce breast-milk HIV-1 transmission
October 21, 2008

A rapid situation and response assessment of the female regular sex partners of male drug users in South Asia: Factors associated with condom use during the last sexual intercourse
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy assessed by drug level monitoring and self-report in Cameroon
Understanding the impact of male circumcision interventions on the spread of HIV in southern Africa
Use of antenatal clinic surveillance to assess the effect of sexual behavior on HIV prevalence in young women in Karonga District, Malawi
September 15, 2008

Improvement of vaginal health for Kenyan women at risk for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Results of a randomized trial
HIV voluntary counseling and testing and behavioral risk reduction in developing countries: a meta-analysis, 1990-2005
Reduced mortality associated with breast-feeding-acquired HIV infection and breast-feeding among HIV-infected children in Zambia
Treating curable sexually transmitted infections to prevent HIV in Africa: Still an effective control strategy?
August 7, 2008

Effectiveness of interventions for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers in resource poor setting: a systematic review
Impact of five years of peer-mediated interventions on sexual behavior and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya
Understanding the impact of a microfinance-based intervention on women's empowerment and the reduction of intimate partner violence in South Africa
Excessive early mortality in the first year of treatment in HIV type 1-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings
July 10, 2008

Electronic measurement of adherence to pediatric antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
Intervention to promote exclusive breast-feeding for the first 6 months of life in a high HIV prevalence area
Evaluation of a prevention intervention to reduce HIV risk among Angolan soldiers
Rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy in 10,000 adults in Côte d'Ivoire: 2-year outcomes and determinants
June 19, 2008

Community-based follow-up for late patients enrolled in a district-wide programme for antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia
The cost-effectiveness of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-infected children in Zambia
Effect of herpes simplex suppression on incidence of HIV among women in Tanzania
Rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy in 10,000 adults in Côte d'Ivoire: 2-year outcomes and determinants
June 2, 2008

Overestimates of survival after HAART: implications for global scale-up efforts
SAVVY vaginal gel (C31G) for prevention of HIV infection: a randomized controlled trial in Nigeria
Association of HIV and malaria with mother-to-child transmission, birth outcomes, and child mortality
Mortality in HIV-infected Ugandan adults receiving antiretroviral treatment and survival of their HIV-uninfected children: a prospective cohort study
May 6, 2008

Reducing HIV infection among new injecting drug users in the China-Vietnam Cross Border Project
Systematic review exploring time trends in the association between educational attainment and risk of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa
Effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment in a South African program: a cohort study
Rapid HIV testing and prevention of perinatal HIV transmission in high-risk maternity hospitals in St. Petersburg, Russia
April 17, 2008

Efficacy of a culturally adapted intervention for youth living with HIV in Uganda
Point-of-care lactate testing predicts mortality of severe sepsis in a predominantly HIV type 1-infected patient population in Uganda
Sexual network structure and the spread of HIV in Africa: evidence from Likoma Island, Malawi
Incidence and determinants of mortality and morbidity following early antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-infected adults in West Africa
March 31, 2008

A novel economic intervention to reduce HIV risks among school-going AIDS orphans in rural Uganda
Elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men in low- and middle-income countries 2000-2006: a systematic review
Maternal disease stage and child undenutrition in relation to mortality among children born to HIV-infected women in Tanzania
Missed opportunities to address reproductive health care needs among HIV-infected women in antiviral therapy programs
March 17, 2008

Characteristics and outcomes of adult patients lost to follow-up at an antiretroviral treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa
Home-based versus clinic-based self-sampling and testing for sexually transmitted infections in Gugulethu, South Africa: randomised controlled trial
High uptake of exclusive breastfeeding and reduced early post-natal HIV transmission
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission: program changes and the effect on uptake of the HIVNET 012 regimen in Malawi
February 25, 2008

Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive children: evaluation at 12 months in a routine program in Cambodia
Breast health problems are rare in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women who receive counseling and support for breast-feeding in South Africa
The association between HIV infection and alcohol use: a systematic review and meta-analysis of African studies
Routine offer of antenatal HIV testing ("opt-out" approach) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in urban Zimbabwe
January 24, 2008

Contraception among HIV concordant and discordant couples in Zambia: a randomized controlled trial
Positive outcomes of HAART at 24 months in HIV-infected patients in Cambodia
Randomized control trial of peer-delivered, modified directly observed therapy for HAART in Mozambique
Randomised controlled trial of alternative male and female condom promotion strategies targeting sex workers in Madagascar
January 7, 2008

Morbidity among HIV-1-infected mothers in Kenya: prevalence and correlates of illness during 2-year postpartum follow-up
Cost effectiveness of alternative strategies for initiating and monitoring highly active antiretroviral therapy in the developing world
Predicting the impact of a partially effective HIV vaccine and subsequent risk behavior change on the heterosexual HIV epidemic in low- and middle-income countries: A South African example
Implementing antiretroviral therapy in rural communities: the Lusikisiki model of decentralized HIV/AIDS care

These studies have been summarized by UCSF Global Health Sciences with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global AIDS Program (CDC-GAP). The Digest is then distributed by the U.S. State Department Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) to its personnel based worldwide.