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Global Health Literature Digest
These journal articles are selected from a biweekly digest produced by UCSF Global Health Sciences (GHS). This literature digest collection highlights recently published studies of practical relevance for resource-limited settings. These studies of behavioral, policy, and prevention interventions have one or more of the following aims: to reduce sexual or drug-related risk behaviors, to decrease primary or secondary transmission, to improve health service delivery and quality of life, and to improve HIV treatment and treatment adherence. The studies featured have been summarized and put into context by research staff at UCSF Global Health Sciences. In order to access older issues, please see the Archived Issues. Summaries and reviewer commentary are the work of GHS authors and have been published here with the permission of GHS.
December 11, 2007

Impact of a community sexually transmitted infection/HIV intervention project on female sex workers in five border provinces of Vietnam
Characteristics, treatment, and antiretroviral prophylaxis adherence of South African rape survivors
Routine voluntary HIV testing in Durban, South Africa: the experience from an outpatient department
Predictors of long-term viral failure among Ugandan children and adults treated with antiretroviral therapy
November 5, 2007

Sustained changes in sexual behavior by female sex workers after completion of a randomized HIV prevention trial
Treatment acceleration program and the experience of the DREAM program in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Antiretroviral treatment and prevention of peripartum and postnatal HIV transmission in West Africa: evaluation of a two-tiered approach
Evaluation of a workplace HIV treatment programme in South Africa
October 15, 2007

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients receiving free treatment from a government hospital in Blantyre, Malawi
Biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: a community-randomized trial
Forecast of demand for antiretroviral drugs in low and middle-income countries: 2007-2008
Predictors of failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults: Indian experience
October 1, 2007

Clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in India: starting criteria and second-line therapy
Infant feeding in the time of HIV: Assessment of infant feeding policy and programs in four African countries scaling up prevention of mother to child transmission programs
Estimating the number of vertically HIV-infected children eligible for antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings
Nursing care of AIDS patients in Uganda
September 10, 2007

Incident and prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases risk of HIV acquisition among women in Uganda and Zimbabwe
Cost-effectiveness of on-site antenatal screening to prevent congenital syphilis in rural eastern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa
Continued very high prevalence of HIV infection in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a population-based longitudinal study
Maternal HIV infection and placental malaria reduce transplacental antibody transfer and tetanus antibody levels in newborns in Kenya
August 14, 2007

Prevalence of HIV infection in conflict-affected and displaced people in seven sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review
Flash-Heat Inactivation of HIV-1 in Human Milk: A Potential Method to Reduce Postnatal Transmission in Developing Countries
Antiretroviral durability and tolerability in HIV-infected adults living in urban Kenya
How far will we need to go to reach HIV-infected people in rural South Africa?
July 13, 2007

The cost effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment strategies in resource-limited settings
The protective effect of circumcision on HIV incidence in rural low-risk men circumcised predominantly by traditional circumcisers in Kenya: two-year follow-up of the Kericho HIV cohort study
Risk factors for treatment denial and loss to follow-up in an antiretroviral treatment cohort in Kenya
The impact of HIV treatment on risk behaviour in developing countries: A systematic review
July 2, 2007

HIV, malaria, and infant anemia as risk factors for postneonatal infant mortality among HIV-seropositive women in Kisumu, Kenya
Transmission rates in consecutive pregnancies exposed to single-dose nevirapine in Soweto, South Africa and Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire
Child mortality according to maternal and infant HIV status in Zimbabwe
Discontinuation and modification of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Ugandans: prevalence and associated factors
June 18, 2007

Hunger, waiting time and transport costs: Time to confront challenges to ART adherence in Africa
Perceptions of community HIV prevalence, own HIV infection, and condom use among teachers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Home deliveries: implications for adherence to nevirapine in a PMTCT programme in rural Malawi
Haematological safety of perinatal zidovudine in pregnant HIV-1-infected women in Thailand: secondary analysis of a randomized trial
June 4, 2007

Impact and process evaluation of integrated community and clinic-based HIV-1 control: a cluster-randomised trial in eastern Zimbabwe
A group-based intervention to increase condom use among HIV serodiscordant couples in India, Thailand, and Uganda
Effect of age, polymicrobial disease, and maternal HIV status on treatment response and cause of severe pneumonia in South African children: a prospective descriptive study
The impact of daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy on mortality and hospital admissions in HIV-infected Zambian children
May 24, 2007

Pregnancy and the risk of HIV-1 acquisition among women in Uganda and Zimbabwe
Treatment interruptions predict resistance in HIV positive individuals purchasing fixed-dose combination antiretroviral therapy in Kampala, Uganda
Acceptability of male circumcision for prevention of HIV infection in Zambia
Voluntary counselling and testing: uptake, impact on sexual behavior, and HIV incidence in a rural Zimbabwean cohort
May 9, 2007

The Impact of Male Circumcision on HIV Incidence and Cost per Infection Prevented: A Stochastic Simulation Model from Rakai, Uganda
Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 Infection during Exclusive Breastfeeding in the First 6 Months of Life: An Intervention Cohort Study
Implementation of a Programme for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in a Ugandan Hospital over Five Years: Challenges, Improvements and Lessons Learned
Sex and HIV Education Programs: Their Impact on Sexual Behaviors of Young People throughout the World
April 26, 2007

Evaluation of the Reach and Impact of the 100% Jeune Youth Social Marketing Program in Cameroon: Findings from Three Cross-Sectional Surveys
Acceptance of Anti-Retroviral Therapy among Patients Infected with HIV and Tuberculosis in Rural Malawi Is Low and Associated with Cost of Transport
Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of a National Primary School HIV Intervention in Kenya
Establishing a Workplace Antiretroviral Therapy Programme in South Africa
March 26, 2007

HIV Incidence during a Cluster-Randomized Trial of Two Strategies Providing Voluntary Counselling and Testing at the Workplace, Zimbabwe
Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Young Men in Kisumu, Kenya: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Men in Rakai, Uganda: A Randomised Trial
Reduction of HIV-1 RNA Levels with Therapy to Suppress Herpes Simplex Virus
March 12, 2007

Circumcision for Prevention Against HIV: Marked Seasonal Variation in Demand and Potential Public Sector Readiness in Soweto, South Africa
Antiretroviral Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) for Occupational HIV Exposure
Hospitalization and Morality among HIV-Infected Children after Receiving HAART
February 20, 2007

Acceptability of Formula-Feeding to Prevent HIV Postnatal Transmission, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus Study
Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Program for Secondary School Students in Mongolia
Home-Based Antiretroviral Care is Associated with Positive Social Outcomes in a Prospective Cohort in Uganda
Scaling up HIV Treatment in Peru: Applying Lessons from DOTS-Plus
January 30, 2007

Sustained Benefit from a Long-Term Antiretroviral Adherence Intervention: Results of a Large Randomized Clinical Trial
Adherence to HAART: A Systematic Review of Developed and Developing Nation Patient-Reported Barriers and Facilitators
Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Poor Settings: Decreasing Barriers to Access and Promoting Adherence
Efficacy of Interventions in Improving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and HIV-1 RNA Viral Load: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
January 11, 2007

Effect of a Structural Intervention for the Prevention of Intimate-Partner Violence and HIV in Rural South Africa: A Cluster Randomised Trial
Effect of Cotrimoxazole on Causes of Death, Hospital Admissions and Antibiotic Use in HIV-Infected Children
Impact of Suppressive Herpes Therapy on Genital HIV-1 RNA among Women Taking Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Risk Factors for High Early Mortality in Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in a Rural District of Malawi
December 22, 2006

Integration of Antiretroviral Treatment within Antenatal Care in Gauteng Province, South Africa
A Review of Female-Condom Effectiveness: Patterns of Use and Impact on Protected Sex Acts and STI Incidence
December 6, 2006

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Home-Based AIDS Care Programme in Rural Uganda
Short-Term Effect of a Cultural Adaptation of Voluntary Counseling and Testing Among Female Sex Workers in China: A Quasi-Experimental Trial
A Controlled Study of an HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Intervention with Traditional Healers in KwaZulu-Natal
Measuring the Outcomes of a Comprehensive HIV Care Course: Pilot Test at the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda
November 16, 2006

Peer-Driven HIV Interventions for Drug Injectors in Russia: First Year Impact Results of a Field Experiment
Impact of a Social Influence Intervention on Condom Use and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: A Multilevel Analysis
Country-Wide Distribution of the Nitrile Female Condom (FC2) in Brazil and South Africa: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
The Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Male Trichomoniasis to Avert HIV Transmission in Men Seeking Sexually Transmitted Disease Care in Malawi
November 3, 2006

A Prospective Study Assessing the Effects of Introducing the Female Condom in a Sex Worker Population in Mombasa, Kenya
The Costs of Treating Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
Short-Term Risk of AIDS or Death in People Infected with HIV-1 Before Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: A Longitudinal Study
Improving Well-Being Through Psycho-Education Among Voluntary Counseling and Testing Seekers in Nigeria: A Controlled Outcome Study
September 27, 2006

Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Assessed by Pharmacy Claims Predicts Survival in HIV-Infected South African Adults
Undiagnosed HIV Infection and Couple HIV Discordance Among Household Members of HIV-Infected People Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda
Survival Rate and Risk Factors of Mortality Among HIV/Tuberculosis-Co-Infected Patients with and Without Antiretroviral Therapy
Behavioral HIV Risk Reduction Among People Who Inject Drugs: Meta-Analytic Evidence of Efficacy
September 16, 2006

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa and North America: A Meta-Analysis
Rapid Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Therapy at Primary Care Sites in Zambia
Rural-to-Urban Migrants and the HIV Epidemic in China
Breastfeeding Plus Infant Zidovudine Prophylaxis for 6 Months vs Formula Feeding Plus Infant Zidovudine for 1 Month to Reduce Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Botswana: A Randomized Trial: The Mashi Study

These studies have been summarized by UCSF Global Health Sciences with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global AIDS Program (CDC-GAP). The Digest is then distributed by the U.S. State Department Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) to its personnel based worldwide.