Pulmonary Manifestations of HIV

HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter
Published January 2009
Laurence Huang, MD, University of California San Francisco

Table 4. CD4 Cell Count Ranges for Selected HIV-Related and Non-HIV-Related Respiratory Illnesses

Any CD4 cell count
Any CD4 Cell Count
Upper respiratory tract illness
     Upper respiratory tract infection
Acute bronchitis
Obstructive airway disease
Bacterial pneumonia
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Pulmonary embolus
Bronchogenic carcinoma
CD4 Count ≤500 Cells/µL
Bacterial pneumonia (recurrent)
Pulmonary mycobacterial pneumonia (nontuberculous)
CD4 Count ≤200 Cells/µL
Pneumocystis pneumonia
Cryptococcus neoformans pneumonia/pneumonitis
Bacterial pneumonia (associated with bacteremia/sepsis)
Disseminated or extrapulmonary tuberculosis
CD4 Count ≤100 Cells/µL
Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma
     Bacterial pneumonia (gram-negative bacilli and
        Staphylococcus aureus increased)
      Toxoplasma pneumonitis

CD4 Count ≤50 Cells/µL
Disseminated Histoplasma capsulatum
Disseminated Coccidioides immitis
Cytomegalovirus pneumonitis
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex
Disseminated mycobacterium (nontuberculous)
Aspergillus spp pneumonia