Raltegravir (Isentress)

Published November 13, 2007; Updated January 08, 2014
Susa Coffey, MD
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=ar-07-01
Selected Reference
7. Markowitz  M, Nguyen  BY, Gotuzzo  E, Mendo  F, Ratanasuwan  W, Kovacs  C, Prada  G, Morales-Ramirez  JO, Crumpacker  CS, Isaacs  RD, Gilde  LR, Wan  H, Miller  MD, Wenning  LA, Teppler  H; Protocol 004 Part II Study Team.
Rapid and durable antiretroviral effect of the HIV-1 Integrase inhibitor raltegravir as part of combination therapy in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1 infection: results of a 48-week controlled study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Oct;46(2):125-33
[PubMed ID: 17721395]
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Raltegravir is an HIV-1 integrase strand-transfer inhibitor with potent in vitro activity. This study explored the antiretroviral activity and safety of raltegravir in treatment-naive patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels > or = 5000 copies/mL and CD4 T-cell counts > or = 100 cells/mm. METHODS: Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled study of raltegravir at doses of 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg twice daily versus efavirenz at a dose of 600 mg/d, all in combination with tenofovir at a dose of 300 mg/d and lamivudine at a dose of 300 mg/d (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00100048). RESULTS: In the 198 patients treated (160 on raltegravir and 38 on efavirenz), the mean HIV-1 RNA level ranged from 4.6 to 4.8 log10 copies/mL at baseline. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, the proportion of patients achieving an HIV-1 RNA level <50 copies/mL was greater in each of the raltegravir treatment groups than in the efavirenz group. By week 24, all treatment groups appeared similar, with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <400 copies/mL in 85% to 98% of patients and <50 copies/mL in 85% to 95% of patients. These reductions were maintained through week 48 in 85% to 98% of patients and in 83% to 88% of patients, respectively. Five (3%) patients on raltegravir and 1 (3%) on efavirenz experienced virologic failure before week 48. Drug-related clinical adverse events were less common with raltegravir than with efavirenz. After 24 and 48 weeks of treatment, raltegravir did not result in increased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: Raltegravir at all doses studied was generally well tolerated in combination with tenofovir and lamivudine. Raltegravir exhibited potent and durable antiretroviral activity similar to that of efavirenz at 24 and 48 weeks but achieved HIV-1 RNA levels below detection at a more rapid rate.