Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)

Published March 17, 2003; Updated September 21, 2007
Susa Coffey, MD
Selected Reference
4. Lalezari  JP, DeJesus  E, Northfelt  DW, Richmond  G, Wolfe  P, Haubrich  R, Henry  D, Powderly  W, Becker  S, Thompson  M, Valentine  F, Wright  D, Carlson  M, Riddler  S, Haas  FF, DeMasi  R, Sista  PR, Salgo  M, Delehanty  J.
A controlled Phase II trial assessing three doses of enfuvirtide (T-20) in combination with abacavir, amprenavir, ritonavir and efavirenz in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-naive HIV-infected adults. Antivir Ther. 2003 Aug;8(4):279-87
[PubMed ID: 14518696]
Enfuvirtide is a novel antiretroviral that blocks HIV-1 cell fusion and viral entry. This Phase II, controlled, open-label, randomized, multicentre dose-ranging trial explored the safety, antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics of enfuvirtide, administered by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, in 71 HIV-1-infected, protease inhibitor-experienced, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-naive adults for 48 weeks. Study participants were randomized to receive enfuvirtide at a deliverable dose of 45, 67.5 or 90 mg twice daily; the 45 mg twice daily dose required 2 injections/day, while the higher doses required 4 injections/day. A background oral antiretroviral (ARV) regimen of abacavir (300 mg twice daily), amprenavir (1200 mg twice daily), ritonavir (200 mg twice daily) and efavirenz (600 mg once daily) was provided with enfuvirtide. A control group received the background ARV regimen alone. All potential participants underwent an HIV genotype at screen to ensure a homogenous population and to exclude patients with evidence of genotypic resistance to NNRTIs. Overall, the tolerability of the combination of abacavir, amprenavir, ritonavir, efavirenz and enfuvirtide was generally comparable to control through 48 weeks. No enfuvirtide dose-dependent adverse events (AEs) were observed across treatment groups. Injection site reactions (ISRs) occurred at least once in 68.5% of the enfuvirtide-treated population, and most ISRs were mild to moderate in severity, with no apparent dose relationship. Excluding ISRs, the most common treatment-emergent AEs were nausea, diarrhoea, dizziness and fatigue; with no clinically significant differences in the incidence of AEs observed between the control and enfuvirtide groups. Each treatment group benefited from ARV therapy, with a trend of increasing antiviral and immunological activity associated with increasing enfuvirtide dose. At 48 weeks, the median HIV-1 RNA change from baseline for the ITT population was -2.24 log10 copies/ml for the combined enfuvirtide groups compared with -1.87 log10 copies/ml for the control group. In addition, 54.9% of patients in the enfuvirtide group achieved HIV-1 RNA < or = 400 copies/ml versus 36.8% of patients in the control group. These results indicate that enfuvirtide has a favourable safety profile and is a promising new antiviral agent for HIV-infected patients who have been on previously failing ARV regimens.