July 07, 2003; Updated
|Susa Coffey, MD|
| 8. ||Lim
F; Emtricitabine FTCB-301 Study Group.|
A double-blind placebo-controlled study of emtricitabine in chronic hepatitis B. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jan;166(1):49-56
[PubMed ID: 16401810]
BACKGROUND: Emtricitabine is a nucleoside analogue approved for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus 1 with clinical activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). METHODS: To compare the safety and efficacy of emtricitabine with placebo in patients with HBV, we conducted a randomized (2:1), double-blind study at 34 sites in North America, Asia, and Europe that enrolled adults between November 2000 and July 2002 who had chronic HBV infection but had never been exposed to nucleoside or nucleotide treatment. Each patient received either 200 mg of emtricitabine (n=167) or placebo (n=81) once daily for 48 weeks and underwent a pretreatment and end-of-treatment liver biopsy. Histologic improvement was defined as a 2-point reduction in Knodell necroinflammatory score with no worsening in fibrosis. RESULTS: At the end of treatment, 103 (62%) of 167 patients receiving active treatment had improved liver histologic findings vs 20 (25%) of 81 receiving placebo (P<.001), with significance demonstrated in subgroups positive (P<.001) and negative (P=.002) for hepatitis Be (HBe) antigen. Serum HBV DNA readings showed less than 400 copies/mL in 91 (54%) of 167 patients in the emtricitabine group vs 2 (2%) of 81 in the placebo group (P<.001); alanine aminotransferase levels were normal in 65% (109/167) vs 25% (20/81), respectively (P<.001). At week 48, 20 (13%) of 159 patients in the emtricitabine group with HBV DNA measured at the end of treatment had detectable virus with resistance mutations (95% confidence interval, 8%-18%). The rate of seroconversion to anti-HBe (12%) and HBe antigen loss were not different between arms. The safety profile of emtricitabine during treatment was similar to that of placebo. Posttreatment exacerbation of HBV infection developed in 23% of emtricitabine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: In patients with chronic HBV, both positive and negative for HBe antigen, 48 weeks of emtricitabine treatment resulted in significant histologic, virologic, and biochemical improvement.
| 9. ||Gish
Dose range study of pharmacokinetics, safety, and preliminary antiviral activity of emtricitabine in adults with hepatitis B virus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Jun;46(6):1734-40
[PubMed ID: 12019083]
A multicenter, open-label study was performed to evaluate the safety, anti-hepatitis B virus (anti-HBV) activity, and pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine therapy administered once daily for 8 weeks to patients infected with HBV. Clinical and virologic evaluations were completed at the baseline; at 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days during treatment; and at 24, 48, and 28 days posttreatment. Forty-nine patients were enrolled in five dose cohorts (doses of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg, all of which were administered once daily [q.d.]). Peak plasma emtricitabine concentrations occurred within 1.5 h following dosing. Plasma emtricitabine concentrations (maximum concentrations of drug in plasma and areas under the concentration-time curves) increased nearly dose proportionally over the 25- to 300-mg dose range, with relatively small intersubject variabilities. The plasma half-life of emtricitabine ranged from 6 to 9 h. HBV DNA levels were measured by the Digene HBV Hybrid Capture II assay. Viral suppression (reduction in log(10) serum HBV DNA levels) occurred in all dose cohorts. All doses demonstrated potent and rapid antiviral activities, with a trend toward a greater suppression with daily doses of 100 mg or greater. At 2 months, the median change in the serum HBV DNA level from the baseline level ranged from -1.7 log(10) for the 25-mg dose administered q.d. to -3.3 log(10) for the 300 mg dose administered q.d. Emtricitabine was well tolerated over the 2-month dosing period. These results support further clinical development of emtricitabine for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection.