Abacavir (Ziagen)

Published January 23, 2001; Updated September 12, 2014
Susa Coffey, MD
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=ar-01-06
Selected References
4. DeJesus  E, Herrera  G, Teofilo  E, Gerstoft  J, Buendia  CB, Brand  JD, Brothers  CH, Hernandez  J, Castillo  SA, Bonny  T, Lanier  ER, Scott  TR; CNA30024 Study Team.
Abacavir versus zidovudine combined with lamivudine and efavirenz, for the treatment of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;39(7):1038-46
[PubMed ID: 15472858]
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz comprise a highly effective and well-tolerated triple regimen for antiretroviral-naive patients. Evaluating other unique nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) combinations for long-term viral suppression is desirable. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind noninferiority clinical trial compared the efficacy and safety of abacavir with that of zidovudine plus lamivudine and efavirenz in 649 antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients. The primary objective was a comparison of proportions of patients achieving plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <or=50 copies/mL through week 48 of the study. RESULTS: At study week 48, 70% of patients in the abacavir group, compared with 69% in the zidovudine group, maintained confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of <or=50 copies/mL (in the intent-to-treat exposed population). Virologic failure was infrequent (6% in the abacavir group and 4% in the zidovudine group). There was a significant CD4(+) cell response (209 cells/mm(3) in the abacavir group and 155 cells/mm(3) in the zidovudine group). Safety profiles were as expected. CONCLUSION: Abacavir provided an effective and durable antiretroviral response that was noninferior to zidovudine, when combined with lamivudine and efavirenz.
6. Eron  J, Yeni  P, Gathe  J, Estrada  V, DeJesus  E, Staszewski  S, Lackey  P, Katlama  C, Young  B, Yau  L, Sutherland-Phillips  D, Wannamaker  P, Vavro  C, Patel  L, Yeo  J, Shaefer  M; KLEAN study team.
The KLEAN study of fosamprenavir-ritonavir versus lopinavir-ritonavir, each in combination with abacavir-lamivudine, for initial treatment of HIV infection over 48 weeks: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2006 Aug;368(9534):476-82
[PubMed ID: 16890834]
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir-ritonavir is a preferred protease inhibitor co-formulation for initial HIV-1 treatment. Fosamprenavir-ritonavir has shown similar efficacy and safety to lopinavir-ritonavir when each is combined with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. We compared the two treatments directly in antiretroviral-naive patients. METHODS: This open-label, non-inferiority study included 878 antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected patients randomised to receive either fosamprenavir-ritonavir 700 mg/100 mg twice daily or lopinavir-ritonavir 400 mg/100 mg twice daily, each with the co-formulation of abacavir-lamivudine 600 mg/300 mg once daily. Primary endpoints were proportion of patients achieving HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies per mL at week 48 and treatment discontinuations because of an adverse event. The intent-to-treat analysis included all patients exposed to at least one dose of randomised study medication. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00085943. FINDINGS: At week 48, non-inferiority of fosamprenavir-ritonavir to lopinavir-ritonavir (95% CI around the treatment difference -4.84 to 7.05) was shown, with 315 of 434 (73%) patients in the fosamprenavir-ritonavir group and 317 of 444 (71%) in the lopinavir-ritonavir group achieving HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies per mL. Treatment discontinuations due to an adverse event were few and occurred with similar frequency in the two treatment groups (fosamprenavir-ritonavir 53, 12%; lopinavir-ritonavir 43, 10%). Diarrhoea, nausea, and abacavir hypersensitivity were the most frequent drug-related grade 2-4 adverse events. Treatment-emergent drug resistance was rare; no patient had virus that developed reduced susceptibility to fosamprenavir-ritonavir or lopinavir-ritonavir. INTERPRETATION: Fosamprenavir-ritonavir twice daily in treatment-naive patients provides similar antiviral efficacy, safety, tolerability, and emergence of resistance as lopinavir-ritonavir, each in combination with abacavir-lamivudine.
7. Smith KY, Fine D, Patel P, et al. Similarity in efficacy and safety of abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) compared to tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in combination with QD lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) over 96 weeks in the HEAT study. In: Program and abstracts of the XVII International AIDS Conference; August 3-8, 2008; Mexico City. Abstract LBPE1138.