January 23, 2001; Updated
|Susa Coffey, MD|
| 4. ||DeJesus
TR; CNA30024 Study Team.|
Abacavir versus zidovudine combined with lamivudine and efavirenz, for the treatment of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;39(7):1038-46
[PubMed ID: 15472858]
BACKGROUND: Zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz comprise a highly effective and well-tolerated triple regimen for antiretroviral-naive patients. Evaluating other unique nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) combinations for long-term viral suppression is desirable. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind noninferiority clinical trial compared the efficacy and safety of abacavir with that of zidovudine plus lamivudine and efavirenz in 649 antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients. The primary objective was a comparison of proportions of patients achieving plasma HIV-1 RNA levels <or=50 copies/mL through week 48 of the study. RESULTS: At study week 48, 70% of patients in the abacavir group, compared with 69% in the zidovudine group, maintained confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of <or=50 copies/mL (in the intent-to-treat exposed population). Virologic failure was infrequent (6% in the abacavir group and 4% in the zidovudine group). There was a significant CD4(+) cell response (209 cells/mm(3) in the abacavir group and 155 cells/mm(3) in the zidovudine group). Safety profiles were as expected. CONCLUSION: Abacavir provided an effective and durable antiretroviral response that was noninferior to zidovudine, when combined with lamivudine and efavirenz.
| 6. ||Eron
M; KLEAN study team.|
The KLEAN study of fosamprenavir-ritonavir versus lopinavir-ritonavir, each in combination with abacavir-lamivudine, for initial treatment of HIV infection over 48 weeks: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2006 Aug;368(9534):476-82
[PubMed ID: 16890834]
BACKGROUND: Lopinavir-ritonavir is a preferred protease inhibitor co-formulation for initial HIV-1 treatment. Fosamprenavir-ritonavir has shown similar efficacy and safety to lopinavir-ritonavir when each is combined with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. We compared the two treatments directly in antiretroviral-naive patients. METHODS: This open-label, non-inferiority study included 878 antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected patients randomised to receive either fosamprenavir-ritonavir 700 mg/100 mg twice daily or lopinavir-ritonavir 400 mg/100 mg twice daily, each with the co-formulation of abacavir-lamivudine 600 mg/300 mg once daily. Primary endpoints were proportion of patients achieving HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies per mL at week 48 and treatment discontinuations because of an adverse event. The intent-to-treat analysis included all patients exposed to at least one dose of randomised study medication. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00085943. FINDINGS: At week 48, non-inferiority of fosamprenavir-ritonavir to lopinavir-ritonavir (95% CI around the treatment difference -4.84 to 7.05) was shown, with 315 of 434 (73%) patients in the fosamprenavir-ritonavir group and 317 of 444 (71%) in the lopinavir-ritonavir group achieving HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies per mL. Treatment discontinuations due to an adverse event were few and occurred with similar frequency in the two treatment groups (fosamprenavir-ritonavir 53, 12%; lopinavir-ritonavir 43, 10%). Diarrhoea, nausea, and abacavir hypersensitivity were the most frequent drug-related grade 2-4 adverse events. Treatment-emergent drug resistance was rare; no patient had virus that developed reduced susceptibility to fosamprenavir-ritonavir or lopinavir-ritonavir. INTERPRETATION: Fosamprenavir-ritonavir twice daily in treatment-naive patients provides similar antiviral efficacy, safety, tolerability, and emergence of resistance as lopinavir-ritonavir, each in combination with abacavir-lamivudine.
|7. ||Smith KY, Fine D, Patel P, et al. Similarity in efficacy and safety of abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) compared to tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in combination with QD lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) over 96 weeks in the HEAT study. In: Program and abstracts of the XVII International AIDS Conference; August 3-8, 2008; Mexico City. Abstract LBPE1138.|