Zidovudine (Retrovir)

Published January 25, 2001; Updated February 2013
Susa Coffey, MD
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=ar-01-01
Selected Reference
2. Squires  KE, Gulick  R, Tebas  P, Santana  J, Mulanovich  V, Clark  R, Yangco  B, Marlowe  SI, Wright  D, Cohen  C, Cooley  T, Mauney  J, Uffelman  K, Schoellkopf  N, Grosso  R, Stevens  M.
A comparison of stavudine plus lamivudine versus zidovudine plus lamivudine in combination with indinavir in antiretroviral naive individuals with HIV infection: selection of thymidine analog regimen therapy (START I). AIDS. 2000 Jul;14(11):1591-600
[PubMed ID: 10983646]
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: No clinical trial results directly comparing two nucleoside analog pairs in a drug regimen for HIV that includes a protease inhibitor are available. OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of stavudine (d4T) + lamivudine (3TC) with zidovudine (ZDV) + 3TC, each in combination with indinavir (IDV). DESIGN: Randomized, open-label, multi-center. SETTING: Fifteen HIV clinical research centers. PATIENTS: Two-hundred and four antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected-patients with CD4 cell counts > or = 200 x 10(6)/l and HIV-1 RNA > or = 10,000 copies/ml (bDNA assay), modified to 5000 copies/ml. INTERVENTION: d4T 40 mg twice a day, 3TC 150 mg twice a day plus IDV 800 mg every 8 h compared with ZDV 200 mg every 8 h (modified to 300 mg every 12 h) plus 3TC and IDV. MEASUREMENTS: Primary endpoint: plasma HIV-1 RNA < 500 copies/ml. Additional endpoints: HIV-1 RNA < or = 50 copies/ml; change from baseline in HIV-1 RNA and CD4 cell counts; safety and adverse events. RESULTS: For HIV-1 RNA, 62% of patients on d4T + 3TC + IDV and 54% of patients on ZDV + 3TC + IDV had < 500 copies/ml HIV RNA at weeks 40 through 48 [90% confidence interval, -0.204 to 0.036; P= 0.213], with 49% and 47% respectively achieving < or = 50 copies/ml at 48 weeks (90% CI, -0.134 to 0.096; P = 0.834). Median change in CD4 cell counts at 48 weeks was +227 x 10(6)/l and +198 x 10(6)/l for the d4T- and ZDV-containing arms, respectively. The median time-weighted average change from baseline in CD4 cell counts was significantly greater at 48 weeks in the d4T-containing arm (142 x 10(6)/l versus 110 x 10(6)/l; P = 0.033). Serious adverse events were not significantly different between treatment arms, but there were significant differences for frequency of adverse events of all severity with increased nausea and vomiting in the ZDV-containing arm, and increased diarrhea and rash in the d4T-containing arm. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the choice of d4T + 3TC as a nucleoside analog pair in combination with a protease inhibitor in an initial HIV treatment regimen.